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INVASIVE SPECIES Willis Ford GLIFWC intern cuts Japanese knotweed stems in Iron County Wisconsin. photo by D. Unglaube Odanah Wis.GLIFWCs invasive species program got off to a busy start this summer. Staff and interns have been pulling garlic mustard cutting Japanese knotweed distributing biological controls for leafy spurge surveying ceded ter- ritory waters for aquatic invasive species AIS confirming phragmites reports and following up on last years phragmites control efforts. Garlic mustard is a biennial herb native to Eurasia. Garlic mustard can be identified by its small four-petalled white flowers in early spring and as its name implies the garlic smell of its crumpled leaves. The herb was most likely intro- duced for its medicinal or culinary uses. It preferes damp soil and partial shade and can invade undisturbed forests. In North America garlic mustard forms large dense stands that spread rapidly and replace native plant communities. GLIFWC staff and interns assisted with garlic mustard pulls along the Bad River north of Copper Falls in Mellen Wis. These cooperative workdays go a long ways toward restoring the native plant communities at these sites.Also helping were volunteers from Ashland County Conservation Department Bad River Natural Resources Department Bad River Boys and Girls Club Bad River Watershed Association Wisconsin DNR US Forest Service and Northwoods CWMA. JapaneseknotweedisalargeherbaceousperrenialplantnativetoeasternAsia. Its green bamboo-like stems can grow to heights of 10 feet or more. Knotweed produces upright clusters of small creamy-white flowers in late summer. Japanese knotweed forms dense stands that displace native plant communities especially along stream corridors. GLIFWC assisted staff from Iron County and Wisconsin DNR with knotweed control efforts in Iron County. Leafy spurge is a perennial herb native to Eurasia. It can be identified by its yellow flowers which bloom in May and early June and the milky sap that seeps from its broken stems. Leafy spurge replaces native vegetation in open habi- tats including prairies and pine barrens. Pine barrens habitats in northwestern Wisconsin are unique habitats that are especiallyvulnerabletothethreatsposed by leafy spurge. The use of biological controlscomplementsherbicideapplica- tionsconductedinthefallandreducesthe amount of herbicide needed to achieve effective control. GLIFWC collects and distributes Aphthona beetles in early summer. These flea beetles are on a strict leafy spurge only diet. GLIFWCsannualAISsurveyslook forinvasiveaquaticplantsandanimalsin cededterritorywatersandwetlands.Their objective is to detect pioneer populations of invasive species that can be treated effectivelyandhopefullyeradicatedbeforetheybecomewidespreadandabundant. By Miles Falck GLIFWC Wildlife Biologist Travis Bartnick GLIFWC climate ecologist pulls garlic mustard in the Bad River floodplain near Mellen Wisconsin. photo by D. Unglaube Phragmites purple loosestrife leafy spurge focus of invasive species program Adult flea beetle Aphthona lacertosa feeding on leafy spurge flowers. photo by M. Falck Inset photo courtesy of USDA. enter and exit a rice field and rescue or how to get back into a jiimaan if you fall out. Naigus has been soliciting interest from GLIFWCs member tribes for having the course offered on various reservations. While not an element of the grant the canoe safety team plans to develop some vignettes on the safe handling of jiimaanan for posting on the wild rice page of GLIFWCs website. These will be actual short demonstrations of canoe handling while ricing with an emphasis on respecting manoomin. If you are interested in this program for your community please contact Heather Naigus at 906-458-3778 or email hnaigusglifwc.org. Canoomin projectContinued from page 15 Mazinaigan digital flipbook Do you receive Mazinaigan in the mailWould you rather read it online You now have this option. The online edition is a full-color flipbook that can be read or downloaded to a PDF. Flipbooks are environmentally friendly and they save postage and printing costs. If you choose the online edition you will be notified via emailapproximately one week before the Mazinaigan is mailedwhen it is available for viewing. The email will contain a link to GLIFWCs website where you can view the flipbook. ToreceivetheMazinaiganeitherelectronicallyoramailedsubscription go to www.glifwc.orgpublicationsmazinaiganMazinaigan.html and choose either new subscription or E-edition notification. You may also email lynn glifwc.org or phone 715.685.2150. As of this writing this years AIS survey efforts have detected Eurasian water milfoil on Roberts Lake in Forest County and an established bed of curly leaf pondweed on Gilmore Lake in Oneida County. The crew is also continuing verification of phragmites reports in the ceded territory especially those in or near manoomin waters. Four non-native phragmites sites were verified in central Wisconsin. Meanwhile GLIFWCs control crew recently got started evaluating past phragmites control efforts and re-treating where necessary. Purple loosestrife leafy spurge and phragmites will be the focus of their control efforts this sum- mer. Purple loosestrife and non-native phragmites are both wetland invasives that displacenativewetlandvegetationwithdensemonotypicstandsthatprovidefewer options to meet the food and cover needs of native wildlife. While GLIFWC has been controlling purple loosestrife with the aid of bio- logical controls for several years non-native phragmites is a recent arrival and it is not well established in the ceded territories. Ongoing control efforts within the Lake Superior basin will hopefully prevent the negative impacts phragmites has caused along shorelines and wetlands in the lower Great Lakes basins. MAZINAIGAN PAGE 20 FALL 2015