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FOREST PESTS By Steve Garske ANA Forest Pest Env. Grant Coordinator Confronting the threat of forest invasives GLIFWC pursues solutions Ourforestsareinbigtrouble.Awarmingclimateintensifieddroughtandmore frequent wind events put them under stress making northern trees like balsam fir spruce and birch more susceptible to disease. Historically high deer populations mow down tree seedlings and native herbs to the point of local extinction. Invasive EuropeanandincreasinglyAsianearthwormseattheleafanddufflayerthatnative seedlings need to establish and grow paving the way for invasive plants such as common buckthorn Japanese barberry and garlic mustard.Add tree-killing insects and diseases from distant lands to the mix and our forests face rapid transforma- tion within our childrens lifetimes. Since GLIFWCs forest invasives project started in winter 2012-2013 the emerald ash borer EAB has been found in Superior Douglas County and Rhine- landerOneidaCountyWisconsin.IthasalsobeguntospreadfromtheTwinCities of Minnesota to adjacent counties. The good news is that the EABs spread in the region seems to have slowed as people get the word that moving untreated logs and firewood long distances can easily start a new infestation. The purpose of GLIFWCs 3-year forest invasives project is to find ways to prevent or slow the spread of introduced insects and diseases and reduce their impact on tribal communities and aki earth. The focus this third year is to gather input from tribal elders harvesters and gatherers on the importance of trees poten- tially affected by forest invasives and on the best ways to address the threat of these beings to ceded territory forests. In March of this year GLIFWC sponsored a meeting of Ojibwe tribal elders and gatherers tribal natural resource staff BIA staff and scientists and regulators from USDA-APHIS and state agencies. The meeting gave participants a chance to hear a wide variety of perspectives learn about the threats posed by these trans- located beings and to express their ideas and concerns. As a basis for making proposed changes to the tribal model code GLIFWC has drafted a forest invasives regulatory report compiling organizing and analyz- ing existing federal state local and tribal regulations currently in effect in the ceded territories. We are also completing a comprehensive response plan outlining what happens when a new population of EAB or another major forest invasive is discovered and the strategies tribes might adopt in order to prevent the introduc- tion or slow the spread of these pests in the ceded territories. We have also drafted best management practices to help tribal gatherers prevent the introduction and spread of these invasives. Model code changes related to tribal gathering have recently been proposed to the Voigt Intertribal Task Force for their feedback and consideration. We will continue to meet with tribal representatives for input on these documents and the future direction of this work. Even though the EAB has now spread to 25 states and two provinces many people are still working hard to slow its spread. The most effective way to keep from spreading the EAB and other wood-borne invasives is to stop moving fire- wood. Slowing or preventing the spread of these organisms buys time for people to find answers that can help save our forests. Counties quarantined for EAB as of August 2015. The red dots indicate the location of the first EAB discovery in that county. Certain counties adjacent to infested counties have also been quarantined because the EAB is very likely to be present there. Forest invaders threaten a centuries-old way of life. photo by Steve Garske Bad River basketmaker April Stone-Dahl pounds a black ash log to remove strips for traditional woven baskets. photo by Charlie Otto Rasmussen A bit of good news for ash There is a bit of good news in what has seemed like an endless sea of bad when it comes to the future of North Americas ash. In southeastern Lower Michigan and northern Ohio where the EAB has been established the longest first discovered in 2002 in Detroit small numbers of lingering ash have been discovered. These trees all green and white ash so far still have healthy crowns even though the ash trees around them are all dead. These lingering ash tend to be in small colonies of related trees that may be either genetically resistant to EAB or not as attractive to the beetles for some reason. Some of these trees are being monitored to see if they will survive indefinitely and cuttings for grafting and seeds are being propagated. Unfortunately no lingering black ash have yet been found. For more about lingering ash see the slide show by Kathleen Knight and others at httpucanr.edusitestree_resistance_2011conference files121544.pdf. The best way to prevent the EAB and other forest invasives from spreading is to not move firewood Partly because of media campaigns like this most campers have quit moving firewood. Just think if they all did MAZINAIGAN PAGE 6 FALL 2015