Page 1
Page 2
Page 3
Page 4
Page 5
Page 6
Page 7
Page 8
Page 9
Page 10
Page 11
Page 12
PAGE1MAZINAIGANSPRING2015CourtgivesMaiinganareprievePublishedbytheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionSpring2015ExpertsweighinonMilleLacsByPhilomenaKebecGLIFWCPolicyAnalystIna110-pagedecisionissuedonDecember192014thefederaldistrictcourtintheDistrictofColumbiainvalidatedtheU.S.FishandWildlifesUSFWSrulethatremovedprotectionsundertheEndangeredSpeciesActESAfortheGreatLakesGreyWolf.ThisdecisioninstantlyrestoredprotectionstomaiinganthegreywolfpopulationsoftheWesternGreatLakesregionincludingthecededterritories.MaiinganacrossthecededterritoriesnowenjoythehighestlevelofprotectionofferedundertheESAandcannolongerbelegallyhuntedforsportorkilledfordepredationondomesticanimals.TheplaintiffsincludeanimalrightsandconservationgroupsHumaneSocietyoftheUnitedStatesBornFreeUSAHelpOurWolvesLiveandFriendsoftheAnimalsandTheirEnvironmentwhoprovedthattheirmembershadarealandpersonalstakeinthesurvivalofmaiingan.DefendingtheactiontoremoveESAprotectionsfrommaiinganwastheUSFWSwhichwasjoinedbythestatesofWisconsinandMichiganandtheHunterandConservationCoalitionasinterveners.TheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesandtheAssociationofFishandWildlifeAgenciesparticipatedasamicuscuriaefriendofthecourt.ThecourtreviewedtheUSFWSsthreepreviousandunsuccessfulat-temptstodelistmaiinganfromtheprotectionoftheESA.Thecourtfoundthattheagencysfourthattemptwassimilarlyinvalidforthefollowingreasons.FirsttheUSFWSattemptedtodesignateWesternGreatLakesmaiinganasadistinctpopulationfromthegreywolforcanislupusinordertodelistmaiinganliv-ingintheWesternGreatLakes.ThecourtdeterminedthattheESAonlyallowstheUSFWStodesignatedistinctpopulationsifthatdistinctpopulationisthreatenedorendangeredtheycannotbecreatedwiththeintentofremovingprotectionsfromasub-areaofamorebroadlylistedspecies.Secondthecourtfoundthattheonlymethodavailabletoredesignateaspecieslistedasthreatenedorendangeredistomakedecisionsregardingthepopulationthatwasoriginallylisted.Thereareonlythreeoptionsforredesignatingthespecies1removeprotectionsbecausethespeciesisrecoveredorextinct2institutegreaterprotectionsbecausethehealthofthespeciesasawholeisdecreasing3modifyprotectionsincaseswherefaultydatawasusedtooriginallydesignatethespecies.TheUSFWSisrequiredtomakethesedecisionsbasedonsoundscientificanalysisofadequatedata.ThecourtultimatelydecidedthattheUSFWShadinadequatejustificationtodeterminethatWesternGreatLakesmaiinganisneitherthreatenednorendangered.ThecourtfoundthatseveralfactorssuggestedthattheUSFWSsdecisionwasarbitraryandcapriciousorunjustified.Thesefactorsinclude1itshistoricalrangehasbeensignificantlydiminished2theUSFWSdidnotexplainwhythediminishmentofitshistoricalrangewasnotconsideredinitsdecisiontodelist3theUSFWSdidnotadequatelyaddressmultiplemortalityfactorsandtheireffectonmaiingansurvival4theUSFWSdidnotadequatelyaddresstheadequacyofstateregulatorySeeSomeseeklegislationtodelistpage10OdanahWis.Letsmakethisclearrightaway.Naturalwalleyerepro-ductionremainsstrongonLakeMilleLacs.Theprimaryconcernplaguingthelakesogaafisheryisthismostnewlyhatchedwalleyearenotsurvivingpasttheirfirstyearortwo.Notgrowingup.Notevenclosetobeingbigenoughforanglersspearersornetterstoharvest.Whilecriticsofinteragencyman-agementfrombarstoolbiologiststooutdoorwritersroutinelyespousethesimplisticcatch-phraseitsthenetsanindependentcollectionoffisheriesprofessionalsconfirmsthatthelakesproblemsrunmuchdeeper.InaDecember2014announce-mentablueribbonpanelofNorthAmeri-canfisheriesexpertsbackedupstateandtribalappraisalsofstrugglingwalleyestocksonthe132000-acrelakeintheMinnesota1837Treatycededterritory.WeconcludethatrecreationalandsubsistencefishingmortalityisunlikelytobethedirectcauseofthedeclineofMilleLacswalleyewrotethescientificcommitteechairedbyPaulVenturelliPhDUniversityofMinnesota.Addi-tionalpanelistsincluderesearchersfromMichiganStateUniversityOntarioMin-istryofNaturalResourcesandCornellUniversity.EchoingmanyofthedynamicsidentifiedbytheMinnesota1837CededTerritoryFisheriesCommitteethepaneldetailedaperfectstormoflikelyfactorsthathasledtothecurrentimbalanceintheMilleLacswalleyepopulationaconditionmostpersonifiedbytheabsenceofjuvenilefish.Cannibalismbywalleyehaslongbeenknownasanimportantregula-torofage-OwalleyesurvivalnotedpanelistsinMilleLacsWalleyeBlueRibbonPanelDataReviewandRecom-mendationsforFutureDataCollectionandManagementFinalReport.Wefoundthatwalleyecannibalismandperhapspredationbynorthernpikecouldberesponsibleforlowover-wintersurvival.WhyeatyourownyoungPanelistssuggestacombinationoftoomanylargewalleyeandtoofewlakeciscoesamajorforagespeciesforpredatoryogaa.CiscoeslocallyknownastullibeehavesignificantlydeclinedasMilleLacswa-tertemperaturesroseinrecentdecades.Inadditiontorisingannualtempera-turesthelakehasfurtherexperiencedanincreaseinwaterclarity.Bluerib-bonresearcherspointoutthatthetrendtowardclearerwaterpromotesmoreaquaticplantgrowthprovidingbettercoverfornorthernsandsmallmouthbassmakingthemmoreefficientpredatorsofyoungwalleye.Asnotedinthereportthearrivalofexoticzebramusselswhichhelpedacceleratewaterclarificationandotheraquaticinvasivespecieslikespinywa-terfleasthatcompeteforzooplanktonaddsanotherlayerofcomplicationsinthewalleyelifecycle.Throwinanin-determinateimpactfromanewcolonyofdouble-breastedcormorantsandthepanelfindsplentyofcauseastohowbountifulwalleyespawningsuccessultimatelyfailstoproducecatchablefish.JuvenilemortalitynotharvestspurswalleyedeclineByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterSeeMilleLacspage2 MAZINAIGANPAGE2SPRING2015INLANDFISHERIESMoleLakeWis.Whenitcomestoboostingwalleyeogaanumbersbiggercanmostcertainlybebetter.ForWisconsinwatersthattranslatestoreleasinglargerhatcherystockenmassethroughacooperativeeffortlaunchedbythestatewithanassortmentofpartnersincludingtheSokaogonMoleLakeBand.Thetribethestatelakeasso-ciationsweallhavethesamegoalsaidMikePreulSokaogonfisheriesbiologist.Wereworkingtogethertogetwalleyepopulationsuptowhereweneedthem.AcollaboratorintheWisconsinWalleyeInitiativeWWItheSo-kaogonhatcheryproducedalmost20000extendedgrowthfingerlingslastyearreleasingthebountyintofournortheastWisconsinlakes.Theyoungwalleyeaveragedaroundseven-incheslongasizethatboastsasignificantlybettersurvivalrateovertinyhatcherystockknownasfry.Thesefishweresohardy.TheycameoutlookingreallygoodsaidPreul.Hatched-outinlatespringtribalstafftendedtothefishthroughoutthesummeruntilearlyOctober.FromahatcherytankertruckSokaogonandDepartmentofNaturalResourcesstafftransportedwalleyeogaafingerlingsfromthetribesfouroutdoorrearingpondstofreshwaterlakesinForestandLangladeCounty.Watertemperaturesinthetargetlakeshoveredinthelower-50sonreleasedayhelpingtoreducestressmortalityPreulsaid.ForcenturiesogaahavebeenanOjibwestaplefoodandinthe1900sbecameafavoriteamongstate-licensedanglers.Inrecentyearshabitatchangesspurredbydroughtinvasivespeciesshorelinedevelopmentandawarmingtrendonnorthernwatershastakenabiteoutofnaturalreproduction.TohelpjumpstartwalleyenumbersWWIcollaboratorsaredrawingfromthestates12milliondollarcommitmenttofundbasichatcheryoperatingcostsandinfrastructureimprovements.PreulsaidtheSokaogoncommunityisinstall-ingtwoone-acrepondsthatareexpectedtodoublethetribeswalleyeproductioncapacityin2015andbeyond.Weshouldbeabletocontribute40to45-thousandfingerlingsthisfallPreulsaidofthemulti-yearWWI.Sokaogonrepresentativesarealsoworkingwithlocalriparianpropertyownerstoenhancewalleyepopulationsonadditionallakescooperativeagreementswithlakeassociationsyieldthousandsmoreextendedgrowthfingerlingsforpublicfishingwaters.ItstakentimetobuildtheserelationshipsbutnowthingsaretakingoffPreulsaid.SokaogonfishhatcherygoesbigonogaaByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffwriterTheextendedgrowthwalleyefngerlingsproducedbytheSokaogonBandaveragedaheartyseven-incheslong.Fisheriesmanagerslooktodoublefngerlingoutputin2015to40000ogaaforreleaseintopublicwatersinnortheastWisconsin.photobyMikePreulAswithanyfishfromcededter-ritorywatersnorthernpikefromMilleLacsdohavesomemercuryintheirtis-sues.Pikearepredatoryfishthatsitnearthetopofthefoodchainandtheycanthereforeaccumulateenoughmercurythatitlimitstheamountoffishthatcanbesafelyconsumed.ThegoodnewsisfishfromMilleLacstendtohavemercurylevelsthatarelowerthanmanyothercededterri-torylakes.GLIFWCtestedmercuryinnorth-ernpikefromMilleLacsin2013and2014.Thedatacollectedwasanalyzedtoseewhattheconsumptionadvicemightbe.Theresultsofthisanalysisindicatedthatchildrenunder15andwomenofchildbearingagelimittheirconsump-tionofnorthernpikefromMilleLacstotwo8-oz.mealspermonth.Men15andolderandwomenbeyond-child-bearingagecansafelyconsumeuptoeight8-oz.mealspermonth.Thisanalysiswasbasedona30-inchnorthernpike.Sincemercurylevelsarehigherinbiggerfishthenumberofsafemealspermonthisfewerifyouareeatingpikeover30inches.Alsorememberthatifyouareconsumingothertypesoffishsuchaswalleyethesafenumberofmealsofpikepermonthwillbereducedsinceallfishcontainmer-curyandthemealfrequencycategoriesabovearebasedonapersoneatingonlynorthernpikefromMilleLacs.HowmuchmercuryisinMilleLacsnorthernpikeBySaraMosesGLIFWCEnvironmentalBiologistOdanahWis.ThelakesintheMi-nocquaChaininOneidaCountyWisconsinMinocquaLakeKawaguesagaLakeandTomahawkLakehadstrongwalleyepop-ulationsthroughoutthe1990sandearly2000s.Unfortunatelypoorrecruitmenthascausedtheadultwalleyepopulationstodeclinetounhealthylevels.InresponsetothewalleyedeclinetheLacduFlambeauTribeandGLIFWCbiologistsareworkingwiththeWisconsinDepartmentofNaturalResourcesWDNRandtheHeadwatersChapterofWalleyesforTomorrowtode-velopaplantohelpthewalleyesrecover.Whilebiologistsdontknowwhatexactlyiscausingpoorrecruitmentthesurveyresultsareclearyoung-of-yearwalleyearenolongersurvivingtotheirfirstfallinadequatenumberstoreplenishtheadultwalleyepopulation.AlthoughthecauseofthepoorfallsurveycatchratesintheMinocquaChainisunknownbiologistsdoknowthatwalleyeneedavari-etyofgoodconditionstocreateastrongyear-classthroughnaturalreproduction.Firstanadequateadultpopulationneedstobepresenttoproduceenougheggsandmilt.Secondtherightmixofwatertemperaturesandoxygenlevelsneedtooccurduringtheeggincubationphaseforgoodhatchingsuccess.Thirdwalleyefryneedtohaveplanktonavailableforfoodoncetheirenergystoresaredepletedaboutthreedaysaftertheyhatch.Finallyasfrygrowintofinger-lingstheyneedappropriatesizeforagefishoftenyoung-of-yearyellowperchtobeavailableforadequategrowth.Duringallthesedevelopmentalphasesthetinywalleyesaresusceptibletocannibalismbyotherwalleyesorpredationbyotherfishspecies.Sinceitisunclearwhichpartoftheearly-lifestageislimitingforthewalleyeintheMinocquaChainWDNRtooksomeinitialgeneralstepstoprotectyoungwalleyeandbolstersomeyear-classes.Thewalleyeminimumlengthlimitforanglerswasraisedfrom15to18inchesin2012andtheminimumsizelimitwasremovedforbass.Stockingofextendedgrowthwalleyefingerlingsbeganin2012onTomahawkLakeand2013onMinocquaandKawaguesagaLakes.Thepartnersconsideredthesetobegoodstepstowardsbringingthewalleyepopulationsbackbutwantedtodomore.WalleyesforTomorrowworkedwithWDNRonplanstoextendcurrentspawninghabitatonMinocquaLakebyinstallingspawningreefsinwind-blownareasthatcurrentlydonothaveappropriatesubstrate.Finallytoprovidefurtherprotectionfortheremainingspawningpopulationsandtheyear-classesofstockedfishthatarecurrentlyinthesystemthegroupdraftedaplanforanoharvestperiodstartingin2015.Thenoharvestperiodwouldbeinplacefor3-5yearsuntiltheadultwalleyepopulationsreachthreeperacreonMinocquaandKawaguesagaLakesandtwoperacreonTomahawkLake.BiologistshopethatincreasedadultdensitieswillleadtothereturnofnaturalrecruitmentonMinocquaandKawaguesagaLakes.TheplanwasapprovedbytheVoigtIntertribalTaskForceonFebruary5andtheWDNRBoardwillconsiderinstitutinganemergencyruletochangetheanglingregulationforwalleyeonthechaintocatch-and-releaseonlypriortotheMay2opener.PartnerslooktorestoreMinocquaChainwalleyepopulationByMarkLuehringGLIFWCFisheriesBiologistMilleLacsSpring2015andbeyondContinuedfrompage1MarkLuehringphotobyButchMieloszykMovingforwardtribalandstateofficialshavecommittedtostopthedeclineofwalleyethroughveryconservativeharvestallocations.Fortheupcomingseasonfisheriesmanagershavesetthetotalallowablewalleyekillat40000poundsleav-ingamodest11400poundsforOjibwetribalmembers.SignificanttreatyharvestquotasremainavailableonMilleLacsLakefornorthernpike50000poundsandyellowperch135000pounds.TheMinnesota1837cededterritoryholdsotherwalleyeharvestopportunitieson74walleyelakesincludinganumberwaterbodiesgreaterthan1000-acreswherelimitedgillnettingispermitted.FishingopportunitiesinWisconsinandUpperMichiganSafeharvestlevelsforwalleyeandmuskellungeinWisconsins1837and1842cededterritorywatersareslightlyhigherthanlastyear.Tribaldeclarationsforthesespecieshoweverhavenotbeenfinalizedasofpresstime.InMichigantribaldecisionsregardingavailableharvestopportunitiesin1842cededterritorywatersarepending.Treatyspearfisherstypicallyharvestaround32000walleyeannuallyfromWisconsinwatersand4000ogaafromthe1842TreatylakesofwesternUpperMichigan.FordetailsaboutthespringwalleyeandmuskellungeseasoncontactyourtribesVoigtIntertribalTaskForceRepresentativeorcalltheGLIFWCInlandFisheriesOfficeat715.682.6619afterMarch15. PAGE3MAZINAIGANSPRING2015WILDLIFEMAPLESUGARINGOnthecoverBoozhoogaaghelloporcupineHighinatreethisballoffurandquillswasprobablyreadytosnackonsomebark.Whilegaagprefersoakheshewillalsomunchonaspenandwhitepine.photobyBillMattesGaylordMich.InthemixedhardwoodandpineforestsofnorthernlowerMichiganelkomashkoozhunt-ersexperiencedasolidsuccessrateintheannualfallhunt.1836Treatyhuntersfilled10of11permitswiththefinalharvestacowelktakenbyaBayMillsIndianCommunitymemberonDecember29.State-licensedhunterstagged77elkfromaquotaof103duringaseasonsplitintofourtimeperiodsacrossAugustSeptemberandDecember.Theoveralltakehoweverisafractionoftheelkoromashkoozseasonayearbefore.Afterthehardwinterof2013-14wecutthenumberofpermitsinhalfinordertokeepthesizeofherdwithinourmanagementgoalssaidBrianMasten-brookMichiganDepartmentofNaturalResourceswildlifebiologist.Challengedbydeepsnowandextendedperiodsofsubzerotemperatureselementsofthemostpowerfulpolarvortexweathereventsincethelate1970sthewintertookatollonMichiganomashkooz.IntestamenttotheseverityoftheseasonMastenbrooksaidanumberofherdbullslargedominantmalesintheirprimewerediscovereddeadsuc-cumbedtotheelements.Weloseanother30-plusanimalseveryyeartovehiclecollisionspoachinganddiseaseslikebrainwormMasten-brookadded.FollowingaJanuary2014surveyMastenbrooksaidthepopulationdippedMichiganelkseasonwrapsupwithconservativeharvestOmashkoozquotasimilarfor2015AgroupofelkcongregateinthemixedforestlandofnorthernLowerMichigan.photobyDeanBeyerMichiganDNRByCharlieOttoRasmussenStaffWriterOnJanuary72015theStateofWisconsinfiledapetitionforwritofcertiorariorrequestforreviewbytheUnitedStatesSupremeCourtoftheSeventhCircuitCourtofAppealsOctober2014decisiononnighthuntingbytheWisconsinChip-pewaBandsthatweretheplaintiffsintheLCOv.Wisconsintreatyrightscase.InitsOctober2014decisiontheSeventhCircuitdeterminedthattheBandshadshownthatcircumstanceschangedsincetheoriginaldeerhuntingtrialin1989overrulingthedistrictcourtsdecisiononthatpointandrequiringthefederaldistrictcourttoconductfurtherhearingsconsistentwiththecircuitcourtsruling.AfterpetitionsarefiledwiththeSupremeCourttheopposingpartycanfilearesponse.Likewiseinterestedpersonsororganizationscanfileamicifriendofthecourtbriefs.InthiscasetheAssociationofFishandWildlifeAgenciesandtheWisconsinCountyForestsAssociationfiledamicibriefssupportingthestatesposition.TheChippewaBandshaveuntilMarch92015torespondtothestatesrequest.TheSupremeCourtreceivesatleast10000petitionseachyearbutonlyac-ceptsabout100ofthem.TheSupremeCourtwillissueitsdecisiontoacceptordeclinethecasebytheendofJune2015.WisconsinseekingreviewofthenighthuntingdecisionbytheU.S.SupremeCourtByPhilomenaKebecGLIFWCPolicyAnalysttoanestimated668trendingabitlowerthanbiologistsprefer.Largelythroughtheissuanceofkilltagswildlifeofficialslooktomaintainelknumbersintherangeof500-900animalsascalethathelpslimitconflictsonfarmlandforestsandhighways.Michiganelkmanagersplantostayconservativeintheupcom-ing2015seasonandduplicatekilltagavailabilityat103elkforstatehuntersand11elkfor1836tribalhunters.TheMichiganelkherdiscenteredinthe95000-acrePigeonRiverCountryStateForestalongtheeast-centraledgeof1836cededterritory.Followingrati-ficationofthe2007ConsentDecreeaformalrecognitionofinlandtreatyrightsstateandtribalnaturalresourcesmanagershavedevelopedacooperativeapproachtoelkmanagement.Tribalbiologistsworkwithourbi-ologistsandconservationofficersworktogetheraswellsaidMastenbrook.Wevefine-tunedourrelationshipanditsgoingprettysmoothly.FortreatyharvesterslookingtoestablishaniskigamizigansugarbushonNationalForestlandsnowisagreattimetostarttheplanningandpermittingprocess.WewillworkwithyouandtheU.S.ForestServicetodevelopyoursitemanagementplanandpermit.ThepermitprocessisapplicablefortheChequa-megon-NicoletOttawaHiawathaandHuron-ManisteeNationalForestslocatedwithintheOjibwecededterritoryboundaries.Whenscoutingtheperfectiskigamiziganalongwithidealmapletrees10diameterormoreatbreastheightlookforareasthathavegoodroadaccess.Thiswillhelpavoidexcessivedisturbanceandkeepimpactstothesurroundingarealimited.LocatingyoursitewellinadvancewillensurethemanagementplanwillremainsimpleandyouwillhaveyourpermitintimeforharvestInformationneededforthesitemanagementplanincludesSitelocationApproximatesizeEquipmentorsuppliesyouwilluseforgath-eringi.e.tapsbucketsandbagsortubingSapprocessinginformationi.e.ifyouwillprocessthesaponthesiteadescriptionofthesup-pliesandstructuresyouwillbeusingAccessroadsortrailstobeusedtoaccessthesugarbushtypeofvehiclestobeusedi.e.passengercarATVsorsnowmobilesSitemaintenancethesugarbushoperatorisresponsibleforremovingallequipmentandrefusefromthelocationCountyandWisconsinstatepropertiesEstablishingatribaliskigamiziganontheselandjurisdictionscanbeconfusingbutnotimpossibleGLIFWCwillworkwithdesignatedlandmanagerstonavigatetheirpermitrequirements.ContactAlexandraWrobelat715-685-2125orawrobelglifwc.orgformoreinformation.IfyouareinterestedintakingyoursyrupoperationstothenextlevelthereisanewopportunitytojoinatriballyoperatedmaplesyrupcooperativeseebelowItsthattimeofyearagainIskigamiziganByAlexWrobelGLIFWCForestEcologistIMSPCformedtopromotemaplesugaringTheInter-tribalMapleSyrupProducersCooperativeIMSPCwasrecentlyformedtopromotemaplesugar-inginIndiancountry.Maplesugarthisincludessyrupsugarcakescandyetc.isanindigenousproductthathasbeenproducedforhundredsofyearsinandaroundtheGreatLakesregion.Historicalrecordshaveshownlargequantitiesofsugarbeingtradedandsoldthroughoutthesugarmaplebelt.TodaysugarisstillbeingproducedbyNativeAmeri-cansbutnon-tribalproductionisdominatingthemarket.IMSPCislookingtorevitalizethetraditionandassistnativeproducerswithtechnicalassistancemar-ketingopportunitiesequipmentdiscountsaccesstolandandbusinessplanning.Whilebolsteringproductionisalargeaspectoftheeffortreturningtoaculturaltraditionandhonoringthesacredgiftofthesugarmapletreeisatoppriority.IMSPCiscurrentlyacceptingmembershipapplicationstohelpbuildcapac-ityfortheeffort.IfyouareinterestedinbecomingamemberorjustlookingformoreinformationcontactJerryJondreauatgjondreaukbic-nsn.gov.Youcanalsovisitthewebsitethatiscurrentlybeingdevelopedattribalsyrup.com. MAZINAIGANPAGE4FALL2012GREATLAKESOnFebruary102015theHonorableDianaE.MurphywritingforathreejudgepaneloftheUnitedStatesCourtofAppealsfortheEighthCircuitissuedanopinionbarringtheprosecutionoffourtribalmembersoftheMinnesotaChippewaTribeforviolationsoftheLaceyAct.ThecourtfoundthattheTreatyof1837protectedMichaelBrownJerryReyesMarcLyonsandFrederickBudTibbitsfromtheimpositionoffederaljurisdictionbyaLaceyActprosecutionbecausetheactofharvestingandsellingharvestedfishwasprotectedbytheTreatyof1837.Thiscasebeganin2010whentheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcesbegananinvestigationintoillicitsalesofwalleyeandothergamefishinnorthernMinnesota.Theinvestigatorsdiscoveredthatseveraltribalmembersweregill-nettingwalleyeontheLeechLakeReservationandsellingthefishtonon-Indians.ThisactivityviolatedtriballawasLeechLakeBandofOjibweprohibitsthetakingofgamefishbygillnetsforcommercialusesandrequirespermitsfromthebandsconservationcommitteetocommerciallysellfish.Manyoftheindividualsinvestigatedwerechargedwithcriminaloffensesinstateandfederalcourts.ThefederalchargeswereforviolationsoftheLaceyActwhichmakesitafederalof-fensetosellanyfishtakenpossessedtransportedorsoldinviolationofanyIndiantriballaw.16U.S.C.3372a1.Brownandhisco-defendantsraisedatreaty-rightsdefenseattrialinthefederaldistrictcourt.TheyarguedthattheTreatyof1837whichcededlandsinwhatisnownorthernWisconsinandeasternMinnesotaguaranteedLeechLaketribalmemberstherighttoharvestandsellfishfromlakesontheLeechLakeReservationandnearbytheirtribesnineteenthcenturysettlements.UsingtheMinnesotav.MilleLacsdecisionasprecedentthecourtsfoundthatthe1837Treatyguaranteedtribalmembersrightstoharvestandselltheirharvestandthatthetreatyhadnotbeenabrogatedbylatertreatiesoranythingelse.ThecourtsalsodeterminedthattheLaceyActhadnoeffectonIndiantreatyrightsandcouldnotbereadtoabrogatetreatyrights.Ultimatelythecircuitcourtdeterminedthatregardlessofwhetherthetribemadecommercialfishsalesil-legaltheUnitedStateshadnopowertoprosecutetribalmembersexercisingarightguaranteedbyavalidtreaty.LeechLakeBandauthoritiesinformedMazinaiganthattheyplanonpros-ecutingthiscaseintribalcourt.EighthCircuitrulesthat1837TreatyprecludesLaceyActOdanahWis.IntheApostleIslandsareaofLakeSuperiorthenum-berofadultlaketroutage7andolderincreasedthrough2004butnumbershavesincedeclinedtolevelsnotseensincetheearly1980ssolidlineinthegraph.Theresponsetothishasbeenareducedbaglimitforrecreationalfish-ersandareducedallowablecatchforcommercialfishersintheareasoliddashedline.Since2000harvesthasincreasedevenwithreductionstoallowablecatchdottedline.Howevertheharvesthasremainedbelowthesetlimit.Thedeclineinthenumberoflaketroutcoupledwiththeincreaseinharvestleadstoincreasedestimatesofmortalityattributedtothefisherysolidbars.Notethatnaturalandlamprey-inducedmortalitystayedlowalthoughthelatterdidincreaseslightlyduring2007to2009.Lampreymortalityisdirectlyrelatedtocontroleffortsofthesealampreycontrolprogramseerelatedarticlebelow.Theharvestlimitsoliddashedlinewashighfrom2006to2009becausetherewerelargenumbersoflaketroutintheareasolidline.Fisheriesmanag-ersalsoknewthepreybaseintheentirelakewasdeclininggrayshadedareasoitmadesensetoallowharvestofthetoppredator.NotethepreydataaretakenfromtheUSGSlakewidebottomtrawlingdatasetpresentedannuallyattheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionsLakeCommitteeMeetingsallotherdataisfromtheWisconsinState-TribalTechnicalCommittee.InadditionwhenstocksizeofadultlaketroutwashighthenumberLookingatLakeSuperiorlaketroutdynamicsWhyreducedbaglimitsandquotasByPhilomenaKebecGLIFWCPolicyAnalystByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesSectionLeaderWorkshopexploreslampricideresistanceAnnArborMich.TheGreatLakesFisheryCommissionGLFCconvenedafirst-of-its-kindworkshoprecentlytoexplorethequestionAresealampreysbecominglesssusceptibletothelampricidesthatserveastheprimarymethodofcontrolforthisdestructiveinvaderParticipantsincludedexpertsinternalandexternaltotheGreatLakesinthefieldsofmicrobiologyentomologyevolution-arybiologyecotoxicologyanimalphysiologypopulationbiologyandfisheriesmanagement.SinceenteringLakeOntariointhemid-1800sandtheupperGreatLakesbeginningin1921sealampreysparasiticjawlessvertebratesthatfeedonthebloodandbodyfluidsofotherfishhavehadanenormousnegativeimpactontheGreatLakesfisheryandecosystemcausedsignificanteconomicdamageandchangedthewayoflifeintheregion.AfterextensiveresearchtolearnaboutthesealampreylifecycleandidentifycontrolmechanismstheGLFCdevelopedanintegratedsealampreycontrolprogramthatcombineslampricidesbarriersandtrapstocontrolsealampreypopulationsandprotectGreatLakesfish.TodaythecontrolprogramimplementedinpartnershipwiththeU.S.FishandWildlifeServiceFisheriesandOceansCanadaU.S.ArmyCorpsofEngineersandU.S.GeologicalSurveyisremarkablysuccessfulsealampreypopulationsinmostareasoftheGreatLakeshavebeenreducedby90oftheirhistoricalhighsThetwolampricidesTFMandBayluscidealsocalledniclosamidearetheprimaryweaponsinthesealampreycontrolarsenal.Discoveredinthe1950sandearly1960safterscientistsatHammondBayBiologicalStationinnorthernMichigantestedmorethan6000differentcompoundstheyhavebeensuccess-fullyappliedtotheGreatLakeseversince.UsedtotargetlarvalsealampreysinastreambeforethelarvaemetamorphoseintoparasiticjuvenilesealampreysTFMandBayluscideareincrediblyeffectiveselectivetosealampreyandsafetouseintheenvironment.ToachievetheseobjectivestheworkshopwasdesignedaroundfourthemesLampricidesintheGreatLakesWhatWeKnowEvolutionofPesticideResistanceLessonsforSeaLampreyControlStrategiestoPreventandOffsetPesticideandAntibioticResistanceandNext-GenerationLampricides.Eachthemeconsistedofinvitedsymposiapresentationsfromsubject-matterexpertsandwasfollowedbysmallbreakoutgroupsessionsinwhichparticipantswereaskedtodiscussspecificquestionsrelatedtothetheme.Thesealampreycontrolprogramiscomposedofhighlymotivatedintel-ligentforward-thinkingindividualssaidSeaLampreyControlBoardChairandGLFCCommissionerDonPereira.DuringthelampricideresistanceworkshopIwasremindedagainofwhatanoutstandingteamwehaveworkingtoprotectourlakes.WatchingthecrewinteractwiththeparticipantsfrommanyotherfieldsofstudyfromallaroundNorthAmericawasinspiringthesynergythedepthofdiscussionandthemyriadideasforfuturecollaborationconfirmedthatthisworkshopwasasuccessfulstarttoaddressingamajorunknowninourprogram.Thecommentsanddiscussionfromthebreakoutsessionswererecordedandwillbeusedtodeveloptwosynthesispapersforpublication.Thefirstsynthesispaperwillfocusonthelikelihoodoflampricideresistancedevelopmentandstrat-egiestoreducetheriskwhilethesecondsynthesispaperwillexamineresearchstrategiestoinformthedevelopmentofnext-generationlampricides.Publicationinformationwillbeupdatedhereasitbecomesavailable.ByBillMattesGLIFWCGreatLakesSectionLeaderofyounglaketrout4yearsoldwasverylownotpictured.Thiscanbepartiallyattributedtoadultlaketroutfeedinguponyounglaketroutintheabsenceofotherprey.Howeverinthepasttwoyearsthenumbersofyounglaketroutintheareahaveincreased.Itisimportanttoprotectaportionoftheseyounglaketroutsothattheycangrowtoreproduceandspawn.Nowthattheadultlaketroutpopulationislowthereisareducedbaglimitforrecreationalfishersandareducedallow-ablecatchforcommercialfishersintheApostleIslandsareaofLakeSuperior.Commercialharvestlimitsdroppedfromthehighestquotasin2006-2009of134000lbs.tothe2014-2015harvestquotaof48000lbs.Similarlythesportharvesthasbeenadjusteddownfroma3-baglimitwithasizelimitof15inchesandoneover25inchestoa2-baglimitonewhichmustbe20to25inchesandonemustbelongerthan35inches.graphbyBillMattesHarvestAllowableCatchStockSizeAge7Mortalitiesnaturallampreycommercialsport PAGE5MAZINAIGANFALL2012ENVIRONMENTALNonewsulfatelevelsetforMinnesotamanoominwatersyetMulti-yearstudyofsulfateimpactonwildricecontinuesMinnesotaPollutionControlAgencyMPCAscientistsweresentbacktotheirvariouslabsbyapeerreviewcommitteethisfallinordertopursuemoredefiniteresultsrelatingtotheimpactofsulfatesulfideonmanoominwildrice.Thestudiesarebeingperformedtodetermineasuitablestandardforsulfatelev-elsinMinnesotaswildricewatersthatwouldadequatelyprotectthischerishedresource.Butnoconclusiveanswersyet.ThestandardforsulfatelevelsinMinnesotawildricewaterswasfirstsetin1973at10mgliterandwasimmediatelychallenged.Therewasevenafailedef-forttolegislativelychangethestandard.SubsequentlythestandardjustwasnotimplementedafactwhichcametotheattentionofthetribesastheylookedintodischargesintowildricewatersstatesNancySchuldtFondduLacWaterProjectsCoordinator.ThepotentialimpactofminingandindustrialdischargesintowatercontinuestobeatribalconcernandbothFondduLacandGrandPortagemaintaina10mgliterstandardonreservationlakes.Howeverin2010theMPCAdecidedtore-evaluatethatdeterminationandin2011theMinnesotaLegislatureprovidedfundingfromtheCleanWaterLandandLegacyAmendmentforin-depthstudiestobeperformedoveraspanofthreeyears.Sulfateisatypeofmineralsaltthatcanharmricestandswhenitconvertsintosulfidesattherootlevelandbecomestoxictotheplant.NaturallyoccurringsulfatesareuncommoninnorthernMinnesotabutlevelscanbecomeelevatedinareaswithdischargefromminesandotherindustries.TheMPCAdevelopedprotocolsforthestudywithinputfromMinnesotatribestheMinnesotaDepartmentofNaturalResourcestheUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyandinterestedstakeholders.TheMPCAcontractedwiththeUniversityofMinnesotatoperformtheresearchthathasinvolvedseveraldifferentcomponents.Fieldsurveysofwildricehabitatscomprisedonecomponentofthestudy.Thisincludedanalysisofsedimentsandwaterqualityandwasusedtoexpandunderstandingoftheenvironmentalconditionswhichwereconduciveordetri-mentaltomanoomin.Anothercomponentfocusedoncontrolledlaboratoryhydroponicexperi-mentstoevaluatetheimpactofsulfateandsulfideonwildriceseedgerminationandgrowth.Theseexperimentswereonlylimitedtotentotwenty-onedayssohavenobearingontheeffectofsulfateorsulfidethroughoutthelifecycleoftheplant.ConsequentlythehydroponicexperimenthadonlylimiteduseaccordingtoSchuldtwhoisalsoamemberoftheWildRiceStudyCommittee.Athirdareaofstudyusedoutdoorcontainerexperimentstodeterminetheimpactofsulfateonmanoominoverafullgrowingcycle.Thecontainerexperimentswereanotherdose-responseexperimentyieldingresultsthatcouldeventuallybecomparedwiththeresultsfromthelaboratoryandfieldstudies.Thesewerestartedwithtribalfundingforthefirsttwoyearsandtribalfundingalsosupportedafourthyearofstudy.Cumulativelyovertimethe150mgand300mghaveshownacleareffectofincreasedsulfateonwildriceandthateffectbecomesstrongerovertimeSchuldtsaysnotingthatbyyearfourthetribescanshowthattheplantstreatedwiththe300mgsulfatelevelarecompletelydead.Otherstudyareasincludedcollectionandanalysisofrootingzonedepthprofileswhichexaminedsedimentsatmanoominsrootinglevelinthefieldandcontainers.Alsosedimentincubationlaboratoryexperimentswereperformedtobetterunderstandtheeffectoftemperatureonmovementofsulfateintoandoutofunderlyingsediment.OncethestudieswerecompletetheMPCAappointedapeerreviewcom-mitteetoreviewtheworkoftheresearchersandprovidecomments.ThereviewtookplaceinAugust2014.Whileoveralltheresearchshowedthatsulfateconvertedbybacteriaintosulfideinterfereswiththelong-termviabilityofwildricestandsexpertsonthereviewpanelcalledforfurtherstudybeforeanewstandardsulfatelevelisconsideredSomeofthequestionsstilloutforstudyincludedtheperiodorconditionswhenmanoominismostsusceptibletosulfideimpacts.Questionsalsoremainaboutsettingsite-specificstandardssincevaryingconditionsinwaterbodiesmaybemoreorlesslikelytoconvertsulfatetosulfide.Forinstancethestudysuggestsahigherconcentrationofironinthewatermaybelessconducivetoconvertingsulfateintosulfide.Amonganumberofrecommendationsthepanelsuggestedtheuseofmoresophisticatedmulti-levelmodelstocrunchdataaswellasincludingotherexperi-mentalvariablessuchasnitrogenphosphorusironandtheamountoforganicmatterinthesediment.Theyemphasizedaneedtobetterunderstandthecomplexinteractionsthatoccurinthemuckysedimentsthatsupportmanoomin.Thestudiesusedameasurementofwildricecoverageperacreofthewater-body.Reviewerssuggestedusingothermethodssuchascountingstemspersquaremeterbiomasspermeterorthenumberoffloweringstems.Thesemethodswouldprovideamorecompletepictureofthestandsoverallvitality.AccordingtotheMPCAthereviewpanelrecommendsthattheMPCAfirstre-analyzetheircurrentdata-setinlightofthepeerreviewerscommentsespeciallyaroundthestudiesthatexaminetheroleofsulfateandsulfideinwildriceresponsesinthelaboratoryandcontainersforcomparableoccurrencesinthefield.Thisre-analysisshouldincludearooting-zoneporewaterprofilestudyandlaboratoryexperimentsontemperatureeffects.There-analysisshouldimprovetheoverallvalueofthecurrentdatasetsinunderstandingtheconcentrationsatwhichsulfateandsulfidecanadverselyimpactmanoomin.TheMPCAfeelsthepeerreviewprocesswascritical.CommentingthatthepeerreviewwasakeystepintheMPCAsongoingeffortstoimproveitsscien-tificunderstandingoftheeffectsofsulfateonwildriceandtoprovideadditionalfactualinformationfortheMPCAsdecisionaboutwhetherthecurrentMinnesotawildricesulfatewaterqualitystandardshouldbechanged.Manoominresearchisnotnewtotribeswhohavebeenresearchingandgatheringdataonmanoominforyears.Schuldtbelievesthecurrentstandardof10mgliterisdefensible.Takentogetherthemultiplelinesofevidenceseemtoindicatethatthecurrentstandardisprotectiveandthatincreasedconcentrationsofsulfateturnedintosulfideistoxictorice.Thereisclearlyaneffectshecomments.WhileSchuldtispleasedwiththequalityofresearchshehassomeconcernsthattherulemakingprocessismorecomplicatedthanitneedstobe.ForexampletheMPCAseemstowanttofocusonspecificsiteswithhigherconcentrationsofironintheporewaterwhichcanmitigatethetoxicityofsulfides.Schuldtfindsthatfocusunreasonablebecausewaterqualitystandardsandregulationsshouldbeveryclear.Thereisanunduefocusonironmitigationthatshouldnotbepartofthewaterqualityregulationsshesays.ShenotesthatadefinitionofwildricewatersinMinnesotaswaterqualitystandardsalsoneedsclarification.Fornowresearchandyesdebatecontinue.Notargetdateforadetermina-tionhasbeenannounced.MembersofthepeerreviewteamincludedGertieH.P.ArtsAlterraWa-geningenUniversityandResearchCentreNetherlandsDonaldAxelradFloridaTheiron-suldebattleTheamountofironandsuldeisdynamicandoneaffectstheother.Ifenoughnewironisowingintothemude.g.viagroundwaterthenevenalakeorstreamwithhighsulfatelevelscansupportwildrice.Ontheotherhandenoughsulfatecanoverwhelmthesupplyofironandmakesuldelevelstoxic.reprintedwithpermissionfromMPCABySueEricksonStaffWriterTakentogetherthemultiplelinesofevidenceseemtoindicatethatthecurrentstandardisprotectiveandthatincreasedconcentrationsofsulfateturnedintosulfideistoxictorice.Thereisclearlyaneffect.NancySchuldtFondduLacWaterProjectsCoordinatorAMUniversityPatrickBrezonikUniversityofMinnesotaretiredSiobhanFennessyKenyonCollegeSusanGalatowitschUniversityofMinnesotaMarkHansonUniversityofManitobaCurtisPollmanAquaLuxLucisInc.Peerreviewreportisavailableatwww.pca.state.mn.usindex.phpwaterwater-permits-and-ruleswater-rulemakingsulfate-standard-and-wild-ricescientific-peer-review.html MAZINAIGANPAGE6OKEYAWAGEnaabijichigaazowaadOHowdecoysareusediLacduFlambeauWis.Walkinginthefrontdoorthehousehasthedemeanorofarusticworkshop.Woodshavingsscatterthefloorinthekitchenandtheroomsmellsoffreshbasswoodsageandpaint.JerryLabargeaLacduFlambeautribalelderhasbeenmakingfishdecoysforover50years.HelearnedthistradefromhisgrandfatherJoeSharlowbackwhenJerrywasayoungman.Everycreationisdonewithextremeexpertiseandcare.Althoughmaterialshaveobviouslychangedoverthelasthundredyearstheideaandtechniquehavestayedprettymuchthesame.Jerrydoesntutilizeabandsaworothermodern-dayequipmenttocutoutthedecoysbody.Insteadhetakesablockofbasswoodusuallyfromalogandthenbeginstoenvisionthefish.Hisprocessstartswithasemaaforthetreesandthemitigwoodthatheharvests.Hethentakesthehatchetandstudiesthenaturalcurveofthewoodandthenutilizesthisforthefishscurvedtail.Heroughcutsevery-thinganditsstillprettyunclearwhatheismak-ing.Jerrycarvesdownthefishtotherightsizeandthenbeginsaperiodofsanding.Acoupleofyouthwatchandparticipateasheinstructsthemontheirdecoys.Hetellstheyoungboystoshavemorewoodoffofthetailsoitswimsclockwise.Allofmyfishswimclockwise.IdontmakethemanyotherwayIveneverseenaleft-handedfishhejokes.Hetheninstructstheboystocutarectangularholeontheundersideofthefishdecoy.Finsandaneyehookareplacedthroughthetopandoncethecreationisreadymeltedleadispouredintotherectangularpocket.Thisleadwillkeepeverythingtogetherandallowforittosinkandswimproperly.HeremindsusToomuchleadwillmakethefishsinkandnotenoughwillmakethefishflutteraround.Youwantthefishtoswimincircles.Thebellyofthedecoyisthenroundedoutandaplastic-woodcoatingispaintedovertheleadhole.Ajigstickisfashionedsometimesintricatelymodeledafteraclananimalandbotharepainteddependingonthefishshape.OncethefishdecoyisfinishedandattachedbyicelinetothejigstickJerrybringshiscreationsontotheicefortesting.Hetestseveryoneofhisdecoystomakesuretheyswimandcanbeused.JerryLabargeaLacduFlambeautribalelderholdsapieceofbasswoodandbeginstoenvisiontheshhewillcreate.StanleeLabargecloselyfollowsinstructionsashecarvesandsandshisdecoy.InsetAnotchmustbecutontheundersideofthedecoytoholdleadsothatthewoodenshcanswim.Decoyshfromstarttonish.Eachshishand-carvedandcantakeapproximatelyoneormoredaystocomplete.Oncethebodyisformedmarksaremadetosignifyshbodyparts.ByDylanJenningsStaffWriterPhotosbyDylanJenningsTheartofsubsistence PAGE7MAZINAIGANISHDECOYSeyawagAnishinaabewingtheAnishinaabewayAkwawaaisawordAnishinaabepeopleknowalltoowell.Fishingthroughtheicewithaspearistheroughtranslation.Anishinaabepeoplehavepracticedthistraditionalmethodofsubsistenceforcenturiesonriverslakesandstreams.Whentheicewouldprohibitnettingandspearingholeswouldbechiseledthroughtheiceandadifferentformoffishingwouldoccur.Nowadaysthepracticeisstilldonehoweveritisexercisedinamoremodernfashion.Theworkthatgoesalongwiththespearingisstillchallengingandattimesdangerous.Thedaystartswiththeofferingofasemaatobacco.Thetobaccoitselfisaformofprayerandanextensionofgratitudefortheabilitytoattempttheharvestandforthespiritsofthegiigooyagthatmaygivethemselvesuptofeedthepeople.Oncethisprotocolistakencareoftheareaisscopedout.Manypeoplehavetheirspecialspotsoratleastsomeformoforalknowledgepertainingtolocallakesandrivers.Oncethespotispickedanicechiselhammersthroughonesometimestwofeetofice.Theholeneedstobebigenoughtopullalargefishthroughandtocreatevisibilityonallsides.Chiselingaholethroughiceisnoeasytaskanditcantaketime.Oncetheholeischiseledtoanacceptablediametertheslushandicepiecesneedtobescoopedoutofthehole.Ablacktarpwithacutoutisplacedoverthespearinghole.Thisistohelpwithvisibilityatthebottomofthelakeandallowsthefishermantolayonthegroundevenclosertothebottom.Akwawewigamigfishhouseforspearingisplacedoverthehole.Manypeopletothisdaystillrigupatipi-likesystemmadeofsmallpoleswithatarporbalsamboughscoveringthestructure.Thisallowsforthecancellationoflightwithinthesheltertocreatevisibilityundertheice.Thestructureallowsfortheretentionofheatwhichcanbecriticalwhentemperaturessoarbelowzerodegrees.Okeyawfishdecoyisthensentdowntheholeandplungestotheappropriatedepth.Anexperiencedspearermovesthejigstickinapatternthatmakesthedecoyswiminacircle.Differentmovementsofthejiggingstickcorrespondtodifferentmovementsofthedecoyfish.Sometimesthefishdecoyisswimminginup-and-downpatternswhileothertimesitdartsaroundinaneye-appealinginjuredmanner.Eventuallyifitsmeanttobeafishusuallymaashkinoozhemuskyorginoozhenorthernpikeswimsthroughinterestedinthefishdecoy.Sometimesthefishwillevenattackthedecoy.Peripheralvisionisverylimitedwithasmalliceholehoweveranexperiencedfishermanwillseethefishmovinginslowly.Thespearerwillpositionhimselforherselfandmakesurethespearisattachedtotheshelterorthemselves.Inafastmotiontheanitspearaheavyone-piecebarofmetalisdroppeddowntheholeandinaninstantafishispulledup.Everythinghappenssofast.Everytribalmemberthathasspearedthroughtheiceknowsthatapersoncouldgoalldayinthefreezingcoldwithoutseeingonefish.EverytimeisdifferentbuttheAnishinaabegcontinuetobravethecoldweatherandharshwinterstofeedtheirfamiliesandtorevitalizetheseculturalpractices.Atarpislayedovertheiceholeandthenashelterisplacedontopofthetarptominimizelightpenetrationforvisiblewaterconditions.Afterasemaatobaccoisofferedaholeischiseledthroughtheice.MilaniaLabargejigsadecoyupanddownsidetosideinhopesofluringinsomegiigooyag.TotheleftAcompletedokeyawreadytobesubmerged.TheartofharvestingMichaelLabargestandsuponBigArborVitaelakeexcitedandreadytosh.EssentialOjibwemowinakwawewigamigfishhouseforspearingokeyawfishdecoy MAZINAIGANPAGE8SPRING2015KIDSPAGEIskigamiziganSugarBushBoozhooHellomyrelativesWinterisalmostoverandspringtimeisthetimeforiskigamizigansugarbushIwanttotellyouhowwedomaplesyrupuphereBeforeanythingisdoneasemaatobaccoisofferedtothemanidoogspiritsandthetrees.Thisistoensureagoodharvestinarespectfulway.Afterthisisdonethesugarbushisscopedoutforthesizablehealthyani-naatigmapletree.DoyouguysknowwhatamapletreelookslikeCheckoutthepicturestotheright.Eachtreeisdrillednottoodeepaswedontwanttohurtthetree.Wethenputatapinthedrillholeandhangaakikpailbucketfromthetap.Thepailwillcollectthewiishkobaaboomaplesap.Somepeopleusecoffeetinssomeusemilkjugsothersusebags.Everyonehastheirownspecialwayofdoingthings.Ourancestorscollectedsapinbirchbarkbaskets.Nextitsallaboutpatience.Mygrandparentsalwaysremindmethatbeingpatientisreallyimportantineverythingwedo.Sometimesthebagswillbefullofsapinacouplehoursothertimesittakeslonger.Everydaywereturntothesugarbushtoemptythepailsofsapintoabiggerbucket.Whenwefillacoupleofthelargercontainersweknowitistimetoboil.Thenextstepistobuildafire.Ourwordforfireisishkode.Ishkodeneedstobehotforthesaptoboildown.Woodisconstantlyaddedtothefireandthesapletsoffalotofsteam.Thereisalotofwaterinsapsoweneedtokeepboilingthewateraway.Eventuallywebegintosmellthesweetscentofwarmsyrup.Mostofthewaterisgoneandwecansmellnaturalsugar.Wecleanoutthemixtureandthenitistimetobottlethesyrup.Wemakeenoughsyrupeveryyearforourfamilyandalsotogiveawayasgiftstocommunitymembersandrelatives.NumbertheeventsinorderCutoutthispatternandtraceontoconstructionpaper.Cutoutthepatternagainthenfoldalongthedottedline.Foldpiecesinwardandtapeontheinside.MakakokeMakeabirchbarkbasketOziiginaanziinzibaakwadaabooTomakemaplesugarBagoneigeTodrillIskigamideBoildownBiindaakoojigeMakeanofferingoftobaccoNaadoobiiGathersapOzhigaaigeTaptreesAkikPail PAGE9MAZINAIGANSPRING2015Down1.Itbuds.2.Howwhat3.frogs4.Itismelting.6.Shegoes.Across5.eggs7.Where8.Sheissick.9.alsoIKIDOWINODAMINOWINwordplayTranslationsNiizh2A.WhereareyouwalkingInthewoodsIamwalkingnowtoday.B.WherewillsheeatAttherestaurantshewilleatthere.C.WherewillshegoshingAttherivershewillgoshing.D.WhenwillyouleaveIwillleavewhenitissevenoclock.E.WhathowaretheycoloredthosefeathersEaglesF.Thateaglewasbigbytheriver.DidyouseehherG.WheredoessheliveanimalIwonderwhereshehastheeaglesnestTheyareamazingastonishingeagles.Niswi3Down1.Zaagibagaa2.Aaniin3.Omakakiig4.Ningozi6.IzhaaAcross5.Waawaanoon7.Aandi8.Aakozi9.GayeNiiwin-41.Theyaresugaring-wagmyoldersisterandyoungersiblings.2.Wherewilltheladybegoing-dintowntomorrow.3.Whatareyoureading-yanThisisapaper.4.Whatdowewanttoread-yangattheschoolWeallwanttoreadbooks.5.Afterawhile.Whendotheywanttogosugaring-waadinthewoodsSapbeginstoowsoonwhenitisspring.TherearevariousOjibwedialectscheckforcorrectusageinyourarea.NotethattheEnglishtranslationwillloseitsnaturalflowasinanyworldlanguagetranslation.Thismaybereproducedforclassroomuseonly.Allotherusesbyauthorswrittenpermission.SomespellingsandtranslationsfromTheConciseDictionaryofMinnesotaOjibwebyJohnD.NicholsandEarlNyholm.AllinquiriescanbemadetoMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861lynnglifwc.org.Niswi3DoublevowelsystemofwritingOjibwemowin.LongvowelsAAEIIOOWaaboozasinfatherMiigwechasinjayAaniinasinseenMoozasinmoonShortVowelsAIODashasinaboutIngiwasintinNiizhoasinonlyAglottalstopisavoicelessnasalsoundasinAaw.Respectfullyenlistanelderforhelpinpronunciationanddialectdierences.-yan-waad-d-wag-yang1.Iskigamizige_____nimisedashnishiime.2.Aandiwaa-izhaa_____ikwewaabangoodenaang3.Aaniinegindaaso_____Mazinaiganoow.4.Aaniinwaa-agindaawo_____gikinoo-amaadiiwigamigongGiwii-agindaaminmazinaiganan.5.Baanimaa.Aaniinapiiwaa-iskigamizige_____megwaayaakMaajigaawayiibaziigwang.VAI-Sheis...Theyare...suffix-wagWhoWhatWheretypequestionsShesuffix-d.Yousuffix-yan.Theysuffix-waad.WeUswoyousuffix-yaang.AllofUswyouyang.Iskigamizige.Sheismakingsugar.Iskigamizigewag.Theyaresugaring.AandieskigamizigedWhereisshesugaring.AandieskigamizigeyanWhereareyousugaringAandiwaa-iskigamizigeyangWherewillwesugarMino-ziigwan.Maajigaa.Itisagoodspring.Sapbeginstoflow.HowahMiiiw.Niizh2Bezhig1OJIBWEMOWINOjibweLanguageNiiwin421AaniinQuestioningAaniinezhwebakziigwangCirclethe10underlinedOjibwewordsinthelettermaze.TranslationsbelowWhatishappeningasitisspringBimaadiziwin.Akiingaanzinaagwad.AaniinezhwebakagwajiingZhaawaninoodin.Noodin.Gimiwanwayiiba.Giwedinongbimisewagingiwandegwag.Aabawaasigedashabaate.Ningizogoon.Onaagoshingmashkawaakwaji.IzhinikaazoOnaabani-Giizisoowgiizis.Wayiibamaajigaaidashzaagibagaa.BizindanNoondaagoziwagingiwomakakiig.Ombiigiziwag.Ninzaagiaag.Zhishiibensag.Gayebaashkaweowagzhiishiibensag.MiigwechLife.Ontheearththelandlookstransformed.WhatishappeningweatheroutsideThereisasouthwind.Itiswindy.Itwillrainsoon.Tothenorththeyfythosecrows.Thesunwarmsthingsupanditiswarmweather.Shemeltsthawsthesnow.Intheeveningshefreezes.SheiscalledtheCrustontheSnowMoonthismoonMarch.Soonsapbeginstorunandtheleavesbud.ListenTheyarecallingcroakingliketheydothosefrogs.Theyareloud.Ilovethem.Alsotheyarehatchingtheducklings.ThankyouKOGIMMBINWIIWMIEZDIEAMWIIAGAABNIHOAWZJISBININABAMHITSKGINEAOGICHIYJIANISONBTWNENGSIEMGAANDIMIGIZIWAGASDA.AandibemoseyanMegwaayaaknimbimosenoongom.B.Aandigaa-wiisinidWiisiniwigamigonggii-wiisiniimaa.C.Aandiwaa-nwaajigiigoonyiwedZiibiingnoojigiigooniyiwe.D.Aaniinapiiwaa-maajaayanNiwii-maajaaniizhwaaso-dibaiganek.E.AaniinenaanzowaadingiwmiigwanagMigiziwaginaF.Gichi-mindidoaawmigiziziibiing.Gigii-waabamaanaG.AandidezhedAandieyaaddibimigiziwazisonMaamakaaden-daagoziwagmigiziwag.456AaniinWhathowAandiAaniindiWhereAaniinwaa-miijiyanWhatdoyouwanttoeatWaawaanoonniwii-miijinan.Iwanttoeateggs.AaniinezhichigeyanWhatareyoudoingNindagindaas.Iamreading.Aandigaa-izhaayanWheredidyougoZiibiingningii-izhaa.Iwenttotheriver.Aandiwaa-izhaawaadbaanimaaWherewilltheygolaterIskigamiziganingwiiizhaawag.Theywillgotothesugarbush.Aandigaa-izhaadbijiinaagoWheredidshegoyesterdayGii-kiiwe.Shewenthome.8OnlineResourcesojibwe.lib.umn.eduwww.umich.eduojibwewww.glifwc.orgQRCodeScanforlesson379OJIBWEMOWIN MAZINAIGANPAGE10SPRING2015WALKINGONENVIRONMENTALDr.JimMeekermanoominexpertandfriendwalksonBySueEricksonStaffWriterWithaneyetofuturecareerstheLacCourteOreillesMiddleSchooltrekkednorthandspentthedaywithacross-sectionofGLIFWCstaffJanuary28.StudentsexperiencedtheCommissionsuniquemarriageofscienceandcultureintheofceandaeldlearninghowtotrackwaabizheshiwagmartensagingLakeSuperiorshandpreviewingOjibwemowinoutreachprograms.Conservationofcerswerealsoonhandandsharedstoriesoftheiradventurespatrollinginthecededterritory.NickMcCannwildlifebiologistpicturedleftandWildlifeTechnicianAdamOjaledstudenttrackingteamsacrossNorthernGreatLakesVisitorCentergroundsinsearchofradiocollarsusedtomonitorfurbearers.CORSadlyDr.JimMeekerGurneyWisconsinwalkedonlastDecemberhoweverhislegacyandpassionforplantsliveson.ThatlegacyincludescomprehensiveresearchonmanoomininBadRiversKakagonSloughscoordinatingthecom-pilationofGLIFWCspopularbookPlantsUsedbytheGreatLakesOjibwaseveralyearsasacolumnistfortheMazinaiganandtwentyyearsasaprofessorandstudentmentoratNorthlandCollegeAshlandWisconsin.JimheldanumberofdegreesincludingaMastersdegreeinSpecialEdu-cationatNorthernIllinoisUniversityandaMastersdegreeinEnvironmentalScienceattheUniversityofWisconsin-GreenBay.WithadevelopingpassionforbotanyJimpursuedhisdoctorateattheUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonwithhisdissertationontheKakagonSloughswildriceinvolvingextensivestudiesoftheplantandhabitat.JonathanGilbertGLIFWCsWildlifeSectionleaderrecallsJimcomingaboardandservingasGLIFWCsfirstbotanistin1992-1993.HewasamanwhothoroughlyappreciatedournativeplantsandwasdedicatedtotheirpreservationGilbertcomments.JimessentiallydevelopedtheWildlifeSectionsbotanyprogramandcontinuedtoincludeatribalperspectiveinhisworkafterheleftGLIFWC.RetaininghisstrongconnectiontoGLIFWCandthetribeshewasalsoinstrumentalinpreparingNorthlandstudentstoserveasGLIFWCinterns.GilbertrecallsJimsparticularconcernaboutthemanagementofdeerden-sityinamannerthatalsopreservesplants.ThiswasalsoafrequenttopicinhisJimMeekertakesacloselookatKakagonmanoomin.JohnDenomieleftandMarciaDiverbothofBadRiverassistMeekerintheKakagonSloughswherehestudiedmanoominforhisdoctoraldissertation.staffphotoschemestoprotectmaiinganand5thefailureofUSFWStojustifythepolicyofMinnesotatoallowvirtuallyunregulatedkillingofwolvesinhalfofthestate.Thedefendantshave60daysfromDecember192014tofileanappealtotheD.C.CircuitCourtappellatecourt.PossibleCongressionalInterventionItisalsopossiblethatCongresswillintervenetodelistmaiinganintheWesternGreatLakesRegionandWyoming.In2011afterwolvesinIdahoMontanaandpartsofWashingtonOr-egonandUtahweresimilarlyrelistedafteralegalchallengetoadelistedactionbytheUSFWSCongressintervened.Congressinsertedariderintoabudgetbillthatdelistedwolvesinthatareaandincludedaprovisionindicatingthattheactionwasnotsubjecttojudicialreview.Itwasthefirsttimeinthe38yearstheESAhadbeeninexistencethataspecieswasdelistedbylegislation.SeveralmembersofCongressarealreadycirculatingadraftofsimilarlegislationthatwoulddelistmaiinganintheWesternGreatLakesregionandthestateofWyoming.InSeptemberWyomingwolveswerealsoplacedbackontheESAlistfollowingasuccessfullegalchallengetotheirdelisting.TheeffortisbeingledbyU.S.Rep.ReidRibbleR-WIwhosedistrictisinnorth-eastWisconsin.Co-sponsorsincludeU.S.Reps.CollinPetersonD-MNDanBenishekR-MIandCynthiaLummisR-WY.HumaneSocietyoftheUnitedStatesv.JewelldecidedbytheUnitedStatesDistrictCourtfortheDistrictofColumbiafulldecisionavailableathttpwww.endangeredspecieslawa-ndpolicy.comfiles201412Humane-Soc_y-of-the-United-States-v.-Jewell_-2014-U.S.-Dist.-LEXIS-17524....pdfContinuedfrompage1SomeseeklegislationtodelistmaiinganMiningalternativessummitheldatRedCliffRedCliffReservationWis.TheChippewaFederationMiningCommitteeheldathree-dayconferenceatRedClifftobringWisconsintribestogetherwithlocalmunicipalitiesandthepublictotalkaboutsustainablealternativestominingintheregion.Thesummitbeganwithpresentationsbytribalorganizationsandenvironmentalgroupswhoofferedanoverviewofenvironmentalimpactscausedbymining.GLIFWCgaveanoverviewoftheminingactivitiesoccurringthroughoutthecededterritoriesandthepotentialimpactsminingwouldhaveintheLakeSuperiorregion.Alsodiscussedwerealternativestodevelopthenaturalresourcesofthecededterritoriesinamoreeconomicallysustainablefashionsuchascreatingamaplesugaringco-opmetalrecyclingandfoodandenergysovereignty.Paneldiscussionswerealsoanintegralpartofthesummit.Anelderspanelwithnativeandnon-nativelocalsofferedadviceandsuggestionsonwaystohelpthinkabouthowtodaysdecisionsimpactthefutureandtoconsiderhowthenextsevengenerationswillbeaffected.Tribalrepresentativessatwithlocalleaderstofacilitateadiscussionwiththepubliconthenumerousminingalternatives.Attendeeswereabletoaskleadersabouttheirideasonhowbesttohelptheircommunitiesandofferinputonwhichalternativestheyshouldconsiderimplementing.ThesummitwasrecordedandavailabletoviewonlineatNewsfromIndianCountrysTVarchive.MazinaigancolumnsparticularlypreservationoftheCanadayewontheApostleIslandswhereyewhavebeenthreatenedbydeerbrowse.JimoversawthecompilationofPlantsUsedbytheGreatLakesOjibwaalongwithhiswifeJoanEliasandJohnHeimBadRivertribalmemberandNorthlandCollegestudentwhogatheredmuchoftheinformationasanindependentstudyunderthesupervisionofProfessorJoeRoseSr.RoseformerDirectorofNorthlandCollegesNativeAmericanStudiespro-gramlaterhiredJimtoteachbotanyintheprogramsNaturalResourceManage-mentProgram.RoseethnobotanyinstructorandJimwouldtaketheirstudentsonjointfieldtrips.RosewouldtalkaboutthepracticalusesofplantswhileJimwouldrelatethetaxonomy.JimhadthetaxonomykeyfornorthernWisconsinplantsinhishead.HedidntevenhavetolookinabookRoserelates.JimcontinuedhiscareerasaNorthlandCollegeprofessorintheNaturalScienceDivision.GLIFWCisgratefulforDr.Meekersmanycontributionsasaformerstaffmemberscientistteacherandmentorbutmostlyasaverygentleapproachablehuman-beingfilledwithkindnessandconcernforalllivingcreaturesbutespe-ciallythoseplant-beingsChimiigwechDr.JimByJenBurnettGLIFWCOutreachSpecialistMercurymapscanguidelakeselectionPickyourlakeswiselythisspringMapsindicatingmercurylevelsinogaawalleyeforkeylakesusedbyGLIFWCmembertribesareavailableonlineatwww.glifwc.orgattribalregistrationstationsoratGLIFWCsmainofficeinOdanahWisconsin715682-6619ore-mailjburnettglifwc.org. PAGE11MAZINAIGANSPRING2015ENFORCEMENTChainsawsafetyclasswelcomedBayMillssnaringworkshopGLIFWCWardenTerryCarrickledatwo-daysnareworkshoponJanuary31standFebruary1statMigiziHallintheBayMillscommunity.ThiswasthesecondyearforCarrickpresentingasnaringwork-shopforGLIFWC.Theworkshopattractedtwelveparticipantsthefirstdayandsixteenthefollowingday.Tribalmemberslearnedhowtomakesnaresandproperlysetthem.SnaringhasbeenpracticedforeveratBayMillsCarricksays.Hisparentsschooledhimintheart.Thecrewventuredoutdoorsandsettheirsnaresforthemtositovernightandendedupwithawaaboozrabbitfordinner.Rabbitsandsnowshoeharesaretheprimarytargetofsnaresbutanocca-sionalpartridgecanbecaughtespeciallyinthefall.Carricksaysiftheinterestcontinuestobetherehewillpresentanotherworkshopnextyear.SEFirstdeerMitchellMcGeshickJr.proudlydisplayshisrstdeerharvestedduringthefallhuntingseason.MitchellisarecentgraduateoftheHunterSafetycourseofferedon-reservationbyGLIFWCConservationOfcerMattKniskernandPatrickHazenLacVieuxDesertyouthdirector.photosubmittedLacduFlambeauWis.ThiswasafirstWeallknowabouthuntersnow-mobileandATVsafetyclassesbutchainsawsafetyisanewone.AlevelonechainsawsafetyclassdrewnineparticipantstoLacduFlambeauonJanuary28cladinheavyworkbootsandreadyforaday-longsessioninhandlingachainsawsafely.BeforetheendofthedaytheycouldhollertimberWethoughttheopportunitytoco-sponsorthisclasswasveryimportantstatesGLIFWCWardenHeatherNaigusbecausemoretribalmembersbegantorelyonfirewoodforheatafterpropanepricessoared.InstructorBenParsonForestIndustrySafetyandTrainingAllianceInc.reviewedchainsawbasicswiththeparticipantsincludingpersonalprotectiveequip-mentchainsawsafetyfeaturesreactiveforcesofthechainsawhowachainsawfunctionsandsafehandlingandmaintenanceofachainsaw.Healsowentoverthebasicborecuthowtoestablishahingeinatreeandhowtomakeanopenfacenotchinatree.Withchainsawsinhandparticipantslatertooktothewoodstopracticeboringtechniquesandultimatelyteamed-uptofellatree.Participantsrangedinagesfrom16onupandincludednoviceandseasonedchainsawusers.Buteventhosewhohadbeenusingchainsawsforyearsbenefited.Oneparticipantstatedhedidntrealizehowdangeroushehadbeen.Thesessionconcludedwithhopesforaleveltwochainsawtraininginthenearfuture.ThesessionwassponsoredbytheUpperMidwestAgriculturalSafetyandHealthClinictheNationalFarmMedicineCenterandGLIFWCandwascoor-dinatedbyGLIFWCWardenHeatherNaigus.HopesforasecondleveltrainingvoicedBySueEricksonStaffWriterTotheleftTimothyWaldenshowshowtosetasnare.BelowleftNicholasCameronanddaughterMaryJaneshowofftheircatchofthemorning.BelowPaulaCarrickdemonstratestheartofsnaremaking.PhotosbyEricaCarrickBayMillsHealthyStartInstructorBenParsonsdemonstratesboringtechniquesforworkshopparticipantsBillKaneGLIFWCWardenJordanMcKellipsMikeZimmermanGLIFWCWardenMikePopovichandColeChapmantheyoungestparticipantage16intheclass.photobyHeatherNaigusBillKanefellsatreeasMikeZimmermanandBenParsonslookon.photobyHeatherNaigus SusanErickson..............................EditorLynnPlucinski..............................AssistantEditorCharlieOttoRasmussen................WriterPhotographerDylanJennings..............................WriterPhotographerMAZINAIGANTalkingPaperisapublicationoftheGreatLakesIndianFishWildlifeCommissionwhichrepresentselevenOjibwetribesinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.SubscriptionstothepaperarefreetoUnitedStatesandCanadianresidents.WriteMAZINAIGANP.O.Box9OdanahWI54861phone715682-6619e-mailPioglifwc.org.Ifyouhavemovedorareplanningtomovepleasekeepusinformedsowecankeepourmailinglistcurrent.Ifyouplantobeawayforanextendedperiodoftimepleaseletusknowsowecansuspendyoursubscriptionuntilyoureturn.AlthoughMAZINAIGANenjoyshearingfromitsreadershipthereisnoLetterstotheEditorsectioninthepaperandopinionstobepublishedinthepaperarenotsolicited.Queriesastopotentialarticlesrelatingtooff-reservationtreatyrightsandorresourcemanagementorOjibweculturalinformationcanbedirectedtotheeditorattheaddressgivenabove.FormoreinformationseeGLIFWCswebsitewww.glifwc.orgorvisitourFacebookpage.MAZINAIGANSTAFFPronouncedMuhzinahigunNONPROFITORGPOSTAGEPAIDPERMIT203EAUCLAIREWIPrintedbyEAUCLAIREPRESSCOMPANYEAUCLAIREWI54701RETURNADDRESSGLIFWCP.O.BOX9ODANAHWI54861OjibweCededTerritoriesandMemberTribesofGLIFWCTreatyCededAreas1836183718421854CHANGESERVICEREQUESTEDZiigwan2015