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Legislative news briefs Wisconsin Assembly Bill 600 passes moves to Senate Wetland protection at stake AssemblyBill600relatingtoWisconsinsnavigablewatersandwetlands passed the Assembly in February and was sent to the Senate as its companion Senate Bill 459. It repeals and amends current laws protecting Wisconsins waterresources.GLIFWCsVoigtIntertribalTaskForceconsideredthebilland unequivocally opposes its passage. The Task Force is concerned in particular about the bills potential impacts on wild rice. The legislation makes it easier to destroy shallow vegetation including wild rice by allowing private development to dredge up to 30 cubic yards of lake bed from an inland lake or 100 yards from one of the Great Lakes. Along with other potentially detrimental provisions it also complicates the process of obtaining an Areas of Significant Natural Resource Interest designation which is likely to limit protection for important ecosystems. MoregenerallytheTaskForceopposeseffortstoprivatizepublicresources for the benefit of a few and to the detriment of not only tribes with treaty pro- tected rights but also other state citizens. Gawiin to Assembly LRB-28901 Tribes stand in solidarity over potential mound desecration Gisinaa cold weather was an understatement the morning of January 12 2016. Entering the city of Madison Wisconsin the sound of deweigan drum could be felt a constant and steady heartbeat. Buses full of Native and non Native supporters filed up the narrow streets towards the capitol.This city built on the remains of indigenous ancestry heard from citizens concerned about a bill that would allow for further desecration of Native mounds. The bill is better known as AB620 and it seeks to degrade culturally significant areas for corporate and monetary gain. The bill would make it possible for landowners with mounds located on their property to obtain a permit to excavate and explore the mounds. Once the site owner has proven that there are no remains within the structure the effigy could be leveled and destroyed. Mounds built by Native American people have served multiple purposes throughout history. Mounds do not always contain human remains however thisdoesntrendereffigymoundsinsignificant.Theshapesofthemoundsoften resemble clan symbols humans or animals. Every mound serves a purpose and tells a story. The University of Wisconsin Madison and the surrounding city is laden with both burial mounds and effigy mounds. Approximately 40 mounds exist on the UW Madison campus alone with several flattened in the construction of university buildings. District 2 Representative David Greendeer of the Ho Chunk Nation Legislature left the audience with these powerful words. You may not be able to see them from where we stand but before these buildings there were mounds here. These mounds and those spirits that protect them have brought us here together as one people. Let the world see uslets save our mounds. CLIMATE CHANGELEGISLATIVE NEWS BRIEFS Climate change treaty resources What a vulnerability assessment can and cant tell us To better understand how climate change will impact the CededTerritory scientists with GLIFWCs Climate Change Program are conducting a vulnerabil- ity assessment of many treaty harvested species. By compiling and analyzing data and literature climate changestaffwillbeabletoassesshowdifferentspecies might fare under future climate conditions. Vulnerabilityassessmentshavebecomeanimpor- tant tool to help natural resource managers understand andplanforclimatechangeeffects.Theprocessevalu- ates how species habitats and ecosystems are vulner- able to climate change by evaluating their sensitivity exposure and adaptive capacity. Sensitivityatthespecieslevelreferstothespecies tolerance of climate change effects including changes intemperatureprecipitationorfireregimes.Waawaas- hkeshi deer is an example of a species thought to be tolerantofthehighertemperaturespredictedforCeded Territory habitats. In this case the speciessensitivity to temperature changes is considered low. Exposure is the amount of change a species is expected to experience. For example trends in lake temperaturearefactorsintheanalysisofogaawalleye exposure to climate change. Exposure for ogaa in a shallow lake where lake temperatures may increase more rapidly will be higher than exposure for ogaa in a deeper lake. The third factor considered in a vulnerability assessment is adaptive capacity which addresses a species ability to accommodate or cope with climate change impacts. Some species will be able to adapt better than others for example namegos lake trout needing a cold water habitat might be able to adapt in Lake Superior by moving to deeper parts of the lake where water temperatures are lower. In this example the lake trouts adaptive capacity would be considered highprovidedthatdeepercolderwatersareaccessible. Applying concepts of sensitivity exposure and adaptive capacity to manoomin wild rice through a vulnerability assessment reveals the species could be vulnerable to predicted impacts of climate change. Manoomin can be sensitive to changes in water levels particularly during its floating leaf stage. Looking at its exposure as measured by the increase in the fre- quency of extreme rain events that would cause abrupt changes in water levels manoomin will be negatively impacted again particularly during the floating leaf stage. Because manoomin is not able to tolerate these abruptwaterlevelchangesitsadaptivecapacityislow. GLIFWC will use a combination of approaches to its vulnerability assessment including the gathering of Traditional Ecological Knowledge TEK to evalu- ate the vulnerability of a suite of species and natural community types found across the Ceded Territory. It is important to understand that a vulnerability assessment is a valuable tool in understanding how species will fare under climate change. However the processdoesnottakeintoaccountallfactorsthatmight affect the species. For example included in the GLIFWC vulner- ability assessment is wiigwaasaatig paper birch a resource for which tribal harvesters have noted increased difficulty to find with the characteristics that are ideal for harvesting. While a climate change vulnerability assessment may indicate a likely decline inwiigwaasaatigdistributionitmaynotconsidersome factorsbeyondclimatechangethatcouldinfluencethe overall health of the species such as current or past forest management practices. Vulnerability assessments can provide a basis for differentiating between species likely to decline and thoselikelytosurviveorthrive.GLIFWCsvulnerabil- ity assessment will be used as a foundation to inform management strategies for Ceded Territory resources in the face of climate change. By Kim Stone GLIFWC Policy Analyst Launched New climate change web link The GLIFWC web page long a rich source ofmaterialonCededTer- ritory resources can now be looked to for climate change data and infor- mation on GLIFWCs climate change program. Found at www.glifwc. orgClimateChangeCli- mateChange.html the new link provides an overview of the projects undertaken by GLIFWC climate change staff. Topics include the phenologystudyoftreaty harvested plant species and the Ceded Territory vulnerability assessment profiled in this edition of Mazinaigan see Cli- mate change and treaty resources What a vulnerability assessment can and cant tell us. The new link also profiles the Lake Superior fish diet study and lake trout depthtemperature study being conducted by GLIFWC Great Lakes Section Leader Bill Mattes and Fisheries Technician Ronnie Parisien Jr. For those looking for climate data the web link offers maps of projected changes in annual temperature in the Ceded Territory under different emission scenarios. Additional maps depict the projected distribution suitable habitat of aninaatigoog sugar maple wiigwaasaatigoog paper birch and miskwaawaak- wag Eastern red cedar under current low and high carbon emission scenarios. Perhaps most importantly the new website link provides contact information for GLIFWCs climate change staff for anyone needing further information on climate change in the Ceded Territory. Kim Stone MAZINAIGAN PAGE 10 SPRING 2016 Theysatandsharedstoriesbecausethere was snow on the ground and gazed up through the smoke hole into the night sky. Some remarked It was like sitting with our ancestorsa great day. Since 2012 the ENVISION phi- losophy has grown and expanded into everyday lessons. Organizers are working toward Fridays becoming no class day a day for students to attend culturalactivitiesorprojects.Whetherit be finishing rice going to hunting camp orbuildingawiigiwaamthestudentsare there and excited to learn. Its different from normal class time all the students want to be there says Valliere. Each year more students become involved more community members become involved and more tribal members are experiencingaspectsoftheirculturethat have been lost over time. Culturally responsive education Continued from page 7