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TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNO Traditional Ecological K A foundation for GLIFWCs Climate C TraditionalEcologicalKnowledge TEK traditionalknowledge or indigenous knowledgearetermswithmanydefinitions.Perhapsmostwouldagreetheseconcepts havenosingularuniversaldescription.Traditionalknowledgeisexpressedinvarious ways but most often orally through languages stories songs and laws. Some look atTEK more as knowledge systems of community traditions rituals practicesandmoralvaluesthatreflectanintergenerationalworldviewofinterrelation- ships with the environment. Others look at traditional knowledge as something that is linked to spiritual beliefs cultural practices and ways of life. Many look at TEK as being a combination of all of these things. Traditional knowledge is transmitted interpersonally by individuals entrusted with its care. In many ways TEK differs from the more western-based scientific ecological knowledge that is commonly applied in natural resource agencies. Western accounts emphasize trial-and-error learning obtained through observation over many gen- erations. TEK practitioners obtain knowledge through direct connections with the environment and often emphasize traditional knowledge as a gift from the Creator ancestors and the spirit world. The way scientists describe plants animals and ecosystems can be very different from a native perspective scientists describe them as inanimate as objects in ways that are inconsistent with the native perspective in which all living beings are connected. As noted by one Anishinaabe elder Our people do not define they describe. TribesandothernaturalresourcemanagersareusingTEKinmanywaystoinform their climate change evaluation and adaptation planning. At GLIFWC traditional knowledge is providing the foundation for a phenology study and the vulnerability assessment two major projects within the climate change program. In the phenology study GLIFWC climate change scientist Hannah Panci and climate ecologistTravis Bartnick are monitoring the seasonal changes in 11 tradition- ally harvested plant species in the 1837 and 1842 Ceded Territory aninaatig sugar maple aagimaak black ash wiigwaasaatig paper birch zhigaagawanzh wild leekrampgiizhikNorthernwhitecedarwiigobbasswoodzhingobbalsamfir odeiminstrawberrywaagaagostrichfernandmiskominraspberry.Thescientists visit the sites frequently particularly during periods of rapid phenological change in spring and fall to observe and record the various phenophases of the plant. State-of- the-art weather stations are collecting additional data on temperature wind speed wind direction relative humidity barometric pressure solar radiation and rainfall. See Weather Stations Now Recording Data for Climate Change Phenology Study. Guiding the phenology study is the traditional knowledge obtained through interviews with Anishinaabe elders and harvesters that helped determine which spe- cies should be studied. As the work continues the traditional knowledge will blend with the scientific ecological knowledge gathered at the two phenology study sites. Melonee Montano GLIFWC TEK Outreach Specialist is continuing to interview tribal members to learn more about these species and the phenology cultural tradi- tions stories and songs related to them. By listening to and learning from all sources of knowledge GLIFWC will achieve a greater understanding of how climate change may impact traditional harvesting. The vulnerability assessment is being carried out through a combination of approaches including the gathering of TEK to evaluate the vulnerability of a suite of species found across the Ceded Territory. A vulnerability assessment examines the sensitivity exposure and adaptive capacity of a species or ecosystem to determine how vulnerable it might be to climate change.As in the phenology studyAnishinaabe elders and harvesters helped determine which species should be studied and that knowledge will continue to blend with the scientific ecological knowledge as the work continues. By Melonee Montano GLIFWC TEK Outreach Specialist and Kim Stone GLIFWC Policy Analyst At its January meeting the GLIFWC Board of Commissioners passed a Resolu- tion of Support for the document Tribal Climate Change Principles Responding to Federal Policies and Actions to Address Climate Change. The Tribal Climate Change Principles is a policy paper setting forth eight rec- ommendations to guide federal agencies in the development of administrative and legislative actions related to Indigenous Peoples and climate change. The principles address many of the recommendations made by President Obamas 2014 State Local and Tribal Leaders Task Force on Climate Preparedness and Resilience on which former Fond du Lac Chairwoman Karen Diver served. One of the goals of the Principles is to help to translate tribal concerns to a national level on climate change programs funding and initiatives. With more attention being paid to the pronounced effect climate change has on tribes and treaty resources the need to educate decision makers has become simi- larly importantparticularly to raise awareness and recognition of how traditional ecological knowledge TEK should be used in policy and government. One of the enumerated principles specifically addresses TEK in climate change actions stat- ing Indigenous traditional knowledges with the free prior and informed consent of Indigenous Peoples must be acknowledged respected and promoted in federal policies and programs related to climate change. Involved in creating the guidelines were authors representing many organiza- tions tribes and tribal groups and several GLIFWC staff members consulted in the drafting process. Many of the primary authors of Principles also worked on a sepa- rate earlier set of guidelines that focused specifically on the application of TEK in climate change action entitled Guidelines for Considering Traditional Knowledges TKs in Climate Change Initiatives. GLIFWC ANA Program Director Jim St. Arnold was a consulting author on those guidelines which were presented to the Board in May 2015. GLIFWC joins the National Congress of American Indians and the Affiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians in supporting the Tribal Climate Change Principles. They can be accessed at httptribalclimate.uoregon.edupublications as can the Guidelines for Considering Traditional Knowledges in Climate Change Initiatives. GLIFWCs Board Resolution of Support can be found at tribalclimatefiles201011GLIFWC_Resolution-275c38y.pdf. GLIFWC Board of Commissioners supports guidelines for tribal climate change actions By Kim Stone GLIFWC Policy Analyst Wild leeks or zhigaagawanzh. COR photo GLIFWC taking multifaceted Ogaa captured and released during a recent GLIFWC fisheries assessment. Ed White photo MAZINAIGAN PAGE 12