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OWLEDGE AND CLIMATE CHANGE Knowledge Change Program More generally traditional knowledge can provide observations of ecosystems that might otherwise be overlooked by scientific approaches. This can be seen in language when traditional place names are often highly descriptive of conditions of an area that existed when the name of the place was given. Traditional calendars and astronomical observations tied to animal migration times and harvests can also reflect significant ecosystem changes. For example Iskigamizige Giizis the Sugar- bush or Sap Boiling Moon that occurs in April reflects the time of year when the maple syrup traditionally was gathered and boiled. A combination of language and observation can bring to light weather patterns that may be changing due to climate change if a long-term trend emerges where sap boiling is occurring earlier thanApril. Knowledge of traditional medicines and subsistence foods also can reveal changes in ecosystems that might be the result of climate change most notably when their distribution and availability changes. Sometimes traditional knowledge offers expertise where scientific knowledge simplydoesntexist.Intryingtopredicthowclimatechangewillaffectanecosystem traditional western science often uses climate data and climate models that are very broad in scale and do not take into account local conditions. For example a climate model predicting how climate change may impact an ecosystem near Lake Superior may be so broad that it includes ecosystems affected by the lake as well as those which are not affecting the accuracy of the prediction and limiting its application. The local knowledge of those who have lived and subsisted in an area provides the nuanced understanding of ecological conditions on a smaller more localized scale. To learn more about GLIFWCs phenology study or vulnerability assessment go to httpglifwc.orgClimateChangeClimateChange.html. Further information on TEK will be added to GLIFWCs climate change website link in coming months. approach to climate change Weather stations now recording data for climate change phenology study Tribal Climate Change Adaptation Training in Great Lakes Region July date TBA online Plans are being firmed up for a climate adaptation training that will occur in mid-July for tribal environmental professionals. Offered through the Institute for Tribal Professionals ITEP the course will focus on climate change impacts in the Great Lakes region. It will cover how to develop climate adaptation plans from starting the process to assessing vulnerability and impacts to developing tribal adaptation strategies. The courses instructional methods will include examples of tribes that have gone through the adaptation planning process and involve small and large group discussionsandactivities.Thecoursewillalsosuggestregionalandnationaltools resources and partnerships for climate adaptation planning. WhileITEPdoesnotrequirepre-requisitesforthecourseparticipantsshould have a basic understanding of climate change impacts and complete a pre-course assignment prior to the training. The course is offered with no registration fees for natural resource professionals working for federally recognized tribes. Some travel funds are available. Watch for further information enrollment will be limited so dont delay in registering. The training location has not yet been finalized but is expected to be in the northern Wisconsin Ceded Territory. Course registration was not open at press time for this edition of Mazinaigan but updated information can be found ontheITEPwebpageatwww7.nau.eduitepmainTrainingtraining_ccAdaptPlng. By Kim Stone GLIFWC Policy Analyst Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events. Each biological event in an organisms life cycleflowers budding seeds dispersing leaves droppingis known as a phenophase. Environmental factors such as temperature precipitation and number of frost-free days can cause the timing of phenophases to vary from year to year. Now scientists in GLIFWCs Climate Change Program are getting some high-tech help monitoring the phenology of several Ceded Territory plant species. State-of-the-art weather stations have been placed at the phenology study sites in the Chequamegon Nicolet National Forest and the Penokee Range in northern Wis- consin. Compact and rugged the industrial-grade data logging stations measure a number of weather parameters including temperature wind speed wind direction relative humidity barometric pressure solar radiation and rainfall. Equipped with a solar panel to keep the battery charged the stations have sufficient data storage to store over 6 months of data when programmed to log weather parameters once every 60 minutes. The weather stations are particularly helpful in the phenology study because weather conditions across the Ceded Territory can be quite variable. Having the weather stations close to the phenology study sites provides GLIFWC climate scientists a continuous record of weather parameters on a local scale. After several years of data collection GLIFWC will be able to use the observations to assess potential relationships between variation in the environmental parameters and the phenological timelines of the species being monitored. To learn more about how GLIFWC is looking at phenology to learn how climate change may be affecting different species in the Ceded Territory go to www.glifwc. orgClimateChangePhenologyStudy.html. By Kim Stone GLIFWC Policy Analyst Time-lapse camera used to monitor tree canopy phenology at one of the GLIFWC phenology study sites. Hannah Panci photo One of the weather stations used to record weather data near a GLIFWC phenology study site. Travis Bartnick photo Melting snow and heavy rains raised the level of the Brunsweiler River near one of the GLIFWC phenology study sites. Travis Bartnick photo PAGE 13 MAZINAIGAN