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TEKWETLAND AWARDS OdanahWis.UnderanUSEnvironmentalProtectionAgencyEPAgrant GLIFWC specialists took the first step in a Traditional Ecological Knowledge TEK assessment of the historical presence of manoomin wild rice in the Lake Superior basin.TEK is knowledge gained from generations of indigenous peoples connection and interactions with the environment. This knowledge system is based upon direct observations of the environment and is typically transmitted orally through aadizookaanan sacred stories dibaajimowinan oral histories and ceremonies. The information preserved often includes harvesting techniques best man- agement practices species habitat and distribution along with explanations of the consequences and effects of some actions. Such information can be applied and compared among harvests over time. If the harvest was successful then the validity of such knowledge was reinforced. For unsuccessful harvests different factors were compared and analyzed until an explanation was eventually found and then incorporated into future use. While GLIFWC staff have spent over thirty years exploring monitoring and mapping the distribution of manoomin this is the first project focused on using TEK specific to manoomin. For the Anishinaabe natural resource management often has a different approach than that of state or federal management due to the desire that a certain resource is widely available for all tribal members physical and spiritual needsboth in the present and for seven generations into the future. The idea of resources being needed for spiritual health is also reciprocal in that a resource needs respect and love from the Anishinaabe in order to receive the benefits from it. TEK is recognized as a source of understanding how to properly respect resources. Launched in October 2016 the project is designed to help GLIFWC staff better identify the historic distribution of manoomin. That information will help the Commission assist tribes in more effectively planning for wild rice restora- tion and rehabilitation of in the Lake Superior basin. In addition the project will provide valuable information in the development of GLIFWCs future manoomin management plan for all of the Ceded Territory. ForthisprojectGLIFWCstaffconducted11TEKinterviewswithindividuals known to be or to come from a family of manoomin harvesters. These sessions posed questions about where manoomin is currently harvested where manoomin had previously been harvested if the interviewee had heard about water bodies that used to support manoomin that currently do not and if the interviewee had any ideas on how to protect or restore manoomin waters. More outreach asemaa Most of the harvesters interviewed for this project were already familiar with previousGLIFWCmanoominrestorationandenhancementworkandwerepleased with the results. However it was noted that the most successful restorations and enhancementsasdefinedbyincreaseofyieldortimetoestablishricebedsincluded a spiritual component along with western scientific practices. These recommenda- tions were often given as general guidance for any manoomin waterbodies. The most common recommendation harvesters had for GLIFWC was to increase the incorporation of Ojibwe spirituality with any manoomin work. This includes but is not limited to offering asemaa tobacco to the body of water where manoomin work will take place treating the manoomin plant in a respectful manner and having someone make an offering to the water and manoomin spirits. The other top recommendation for GLIFWC continue education and out- reach about manoomin and its importance in Ojibwe culture. Harvesters were concerned that many tribal youth and non-tribal people disrespect manoomin due to ignorance especially when it comes to harvesting. Improper harvest techniques such as hitting the stalks hard enough to break them and canoeing through a rice Manoomin in theGichigami basin Merging science withTEK By Jennifer Ballinger GLIFWC Outreach Specialist GLIFWC was one of the many orga- nizations and individuals recognized in the cooperative efforts of advancing wetland science in the Penokee Hills of northern Wisconsin headwater wetlands of the Bad River Watershed. GLIFWCswetlandworkinWisconsins Penokee Range consisted of mapping areas that could be perceived as wetlands potential wetlandsfromaerialphotosoversevensquare miles. Although a wetland inventory existed for this area the abundance of wetlands were not accurately represented. A subset of the potential wetlands were field verified by Bad Rivers Natural Resource Department and GLIFWC and determined that a majority of these areas were indeed wetlands increasing documented wetlands from roughly 15 to 25 by area. Other important work included docu- mentingseveralunmappedstreamscollecting baselinewaterqualitydataformanyheadwater streams and assisting in the coordination of water quality monitoring in the area by com- piling station locations and providing maps. Dawn White 2015 Wisconsin Wetland Awards GLIFWC was one of the recipients of the 2015 Wetland Awards given by the Wisconsin Wetlands Association WWA. Award recipients for 2015 were from the left John Coleman and Dawn White GLIFWC Naomi Tillison and Jessica Strand Bad River Natural Resources Department Jim Meeker posthumously and Joan Elias Bill Heart Trout Unlimited Tracy Hames and Alison Pea WWA Travis Olson Wisconsin Costal Management Program Bobbi Rongstad and Tony Janisch Bad River Watershed Association. Monika Blazs photo Manoomin harvesters recommend that GLIFWC staff incorporate spiritual elements into wild rice management. Charlie Otto Rasmussen photo See Merging science with TEK page 20 MAZINAIGAN PAGE 6 SUMMER 2016