Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events throughout the year—when the maple sap starts running, ruffed grouse begins drumming, or blueberries ripen. Phenology is a useful way to monitor possible long-term trends in environmental conditions, such as a changing climate. Seasonality is related to phenology, but has less to do with biology and more to do with variations in environmental factors that occur at specific intervals that span less than one year. Seasonal observations are also important to record from year to year, as they help determine trends in things such as the average ice-on or ice-out dates on lakes, the date of the first snowfall, or the first thunderstorm of the year. Many people jot down observations on their own calendars, and some have been keeping phenological or seasonal records for decades! This information can be useful for scientists trying to gain a better understanding of which species are more or less able to adapt to environmental changes over time. GLIFWC’s 2018 fold-out calendar notes some phenological events that occur within the Ceded Territories throughout the year. Since the Ceded Territories span such a large area, there will be variation in the timing of some of the events on the calendar, based on regional differences in weather patterns and other environ- mental factors. The date someone observes ice-out in the southern portion of the Ceded Territories will likely be earlier than the date of ice-out observed in the northern portion. Getting many different observations from across the Ceded Territories could help us understand how some of these observations vary across the region. Use the two-sided form below to write down your own observations. Make a fun activity out of watching for the events that are listed, or by noting other phenological or seasonal events you observe throughout the year. Completeasmuchoftheformasyoucan.Ifyousubmityour2018observations to GLIFWC, we will try to include some of your observations in future phenology calendars. If you would like to submit observations online instead of mailing in the paper form, please visit to find the link to our online observation form. Using the online form, you can submit observations as they occur. This can be a fun activity for teachers, families, or anyone that enjoys spend- ing time outdoors! (see What are you observing in the Ceded Territories, page 16) 2018 phenology calendar By Travis Bartnick, GLIFWC Wildlife Biologist and Hannah Panci, GLIFWC Climate Scientist & researcherwhoheadsaconservationeffort to protect genetic diversity of aagimaak. Afterpreparingthemiinikaanan,Dr.David sends them to the vault in Fort Collins. For the wiigwaasaatig, however, preparing the miinikaanan for storage presents a greater challenge as GLIFWC staffmustcleanthembeforesendingthem to the Fort Collins facility. Separating the tiny miinikaanan from other debris by hand is painstaking and labor intensive. GLIFWC hopes to find an alternative method before collecting wiigwaasaatig miinikaanan next year. The length of time the miinikaanan can remain viable in storage differs between species and depends on proper processing and storage conditions. Aagi- maak miinikaanan can remain viable for up to 20 years if properly dried and stored at a constant temperature and relative humidity.Wiigwaasaatig miinikaanan are less hardy but can be stored for up to eight years if stored at 35-40 degrees in sealed containers at low moisture. With lessons learned from these efforts, GLIFWC hopes to increase its collections next year and will explore the possibility of purchasing equipment for cleaning different types of miinikaanan. GLIFWCmightalsoconsiderthepotential for storing miinikaanan in other locations orenteringpartnershipswithothertribesor organizationslookingtostoremiinikaanan. For more information on GLIFWC’s miinikaan banking pilot project, see www. html or contact Kim Stone at kstone@ Gathering miinikaanan (continued from page 9) picking. The biggest bit of luck came with the weather: despite a summer of storms, the winds and rains held back enough in many areas to provide a much-needed window for good harvesting. And then there was the respect. The cool summer meant harvest would be late. Some of the dates we tend to assume will provide ripe rice were not going to this year. Would people hold off and let the rice mature, or would they go anyway, hurting themselves, other pickers, and the manoomin itself? In the end, I was pleased. Certainly there were exceptions, and perhaps there always will be. But my own impressions, and those of most of the ricers I spoke to, were that most ricers respected the manoomin. Folks held off, or cut early trips short when they realized the rice needed more time. They gave back a bit to the plant that gives so much to us. I think this was an incredibly important part of the season. This kind of respect really cannot be captured and put in a regulation or be enforced by law. It has to be taught and learned and ingrained as an attitude in the ricer. Not all have it—and we have a ways to go with instilling it into the non-ricing community—but I was heartened by the respect I witnessed ricers displaying this year. Miigwech ricers, and miigwech manoomin! Manoomin (continued from page 3) PAGE 15 MAZINA’IGAN WINTER 2017/2018 • PHENOLOGY •