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Published by the Great Lakes Indian Fish Wildlife Commission Winter 2015-16 By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer Waaswaaganingike wiigwaasi mazinibiiigan Torch hunting birchbark drawing. The old style birch shining torch was attached to a long stick. When the hunter saw the torch light refracting off the waawaashkeshis deers eyes the torch was then quickly stabbed down into the snow or ground freeing both hands for a good quick shot. Various dry materials as well as zhingwaak bigiw pine pitch were added to the torch in layers for a slow steady burn. A very effective old way to hunt deer at night. Waaswaagoning is the name for the Lac du Flambeau Reservation where we Ojibwe still today practice various forms of torch hunting at night. artwork by Biskakone PAGE 1 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 Manoomini-ogimaag gather at Mashkiiziibing Manoomin Chiefs come together to talk about environmental issues Odanah Wis.Nibi water hits the cherry red rocks and sends steam swirl- ing throughout the lodge. One of the many good ways to start a gathering the madoodiswan cleanses the individual heals communities and sends up prayers for everything in creation including the plant and animal beings that Anishinaabeg depend upon. On Friday and Saturday October 23rd-24th manoomini-ogimaag wild rice chiefs and various resource management experts gathered at Bad River to partake in a sweat lodge ceremony and to talk about manoomin. Historically when there were issues at hand that Anishinaabeg needed to address it was done in the form of a gathering. Hereditary and designated leaders would come together and smoke their opwaaganag pipes and talk. Sometimes the talking would last hours other times the talking would last days. The phrase running on Indian time encompasses this old way of thinking.The conversations will last as long as they need to last. Just as this old practice manoomini-ogimaag and others gathered with no set agenda and began to talk about a resource that has been crucial to the Anishinaabe lifeway for thousands of years. After the circle was smudged and the pipes were lit Bad River community elder Joe Rose Sr. began with a welcome address and talked of the Anishinaabe migration story. In this story Anishinaabeg started on the east coast and through a prophecy traveled westward until they found the food that grows on water. Our elders tell us that back then the Bad River sloughs used to be filled with manoo- min everywhere. Those red-winged black birds would gather in great numbers in the rice and when they took off they sounded like a jet. Nowadays the rice isnt as plentiful and those birds have almost disappeared. Joe also made mention of the CAFOs Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and mining efforts that are constantly threatening this area and the resource at stake. This unique opportunity allowed the manoomini-ogimaag and other tribal resourcemanagementstafftovoiceconcernstalkaboutfuturecollaborationamong bands and to convey their dedication to preserving manoomin and the way of life that surrounds this beautiful seed. Food and laughter were also shared along with tribal histories. Many spoke of their teachers and the experiences they have had over the years. Others talked about the positive work already underway in the communities. Tribal members growing up in this time period have seen many changes changes that have not only affected the environment but changes that have adversely affected culture and language. When youth are not taught to appreci- Manoomin Chiefs GLIFWC staff and other tribal resource management staff gathered on a Saturday in October at Bad River to talk about manoomin. Many of these well-respected individuals carry traditional ecological knowledge TEK which is vital to the Anishinaabe lifeway. photo by Dylan Jennings See Manoomin Chiefs page 15 Tribal night hunt underway Safety measures in place The off-reservation treaty night hunt opened Sunday November 1 2015 in Wisconsin Ceded Territories providing an additional opportunity for treaty hunters to secure venison. Night hunting is a traditional Ojibwe practice. The Tribes sought a night hunt opportunity during the 1991 Deer Phase of the LCO v. Voigt litigation. The Tribes lost that part of the case in 1991 because there was not enough data to show that night hunting could beconductedsafely.Howeversincethe 1991rulingtheStatehaspermittednight hunting during the state wolf season and CWD-related hunts. This changed circumstance provided a platform for the Tribes to request reconsideration of the original ruling. In 2012 the Tribes requested that the court reconsider the1991 ruling that prevented tribal members from hunting deer at night off reservation. Since that time the Tribes motion has worked its way through federal courts.After Judge CrabbsinitialrulingdenyingtheTribes motiontheU.S.CircuitCourtofAppeals reversed the decision and remanded the motion back to the district court for reconsideration. In her October 13 2015 decision Judge Crabb accepted the Tribes pro- posedregulationswithonemodification revising the definition of an adequate backstoptorequireanearthenbackstop. The judge ultimately decided that the tribal night hunting regulations address public safety concerns as they require completion of an advanced hunter safety class passing a marksmanship test completing a shooting plan and hunters are only allowed to shoot from a stationary position. While there was only a short space of time after the October decision to prepare for the November 1 opening this year tribal members are qualifying andtakingadvantageofthisopportunity. Seven sessions of the advanced hunter safety class have been offered this fall. New classes are posted on GLIFWCs Facebook and website. The night hunt will be closed during the States firearm season but will resume after the States traditional nine-day season and continue throughthefirstweekendinJanuary.SE ENVIRONMENTAL Twists and turns in Sandpiper permitting EIS issue taken to the Minnesota Supreme Court McGregor Minn.Railroad tanker cars haul Northern Plains crude oil through Ojibwe Country each day carrying the risk of explosive derail- mentsmost recently witnessed in GalenaIllinoiswhererailcarssplitopen burstingintoflames.InplaceslikeMille Lacs Bands Sandy Lake and East Lake communitiesremotelocationsrichin fresh water resourcesa potential rail disaster involving crude oil poses a web of challenges for public safety officials. We have a unique jurisdictional situationinthisareasaidMonteFronk Mille Lacs Band MLB Emergency Management Officer. Anytime you haveachecker-boardedcommunityyou have to have good relationships with Mille Lacs Band local governments prepare for oil disaster By Charlie Otto Rasmussen Staff Writer Monte Fronk Mille Lacs Band emergency management officer discusses public safety issues during the MLBAitkin County Crude Disaster Tabletop Exercise. Event sponsor US Environmental Protection Agency and nearly two dozen additional organizations participated in the event designed to prepare regional emergency services personnel for an oil tanker train derailment that threatens both local communities and the environment. photo by COR TheresmorewaitandseeontheprogressofEnbridgesproposedSandpiper pipelineaspermittingissuesgetresolvedincourt.RecentlyEnbridgeandtheState of Minnesota petitioned the Minnesota Supreme Court to review anAppeals Court ruling that overturned the grant of a certificate of need for the proposed pipeline. The petition was filed on October 14 2015. Earlier on September 14 Minnesota State Court of Appeals Judge Klaphake delayed progress for Enbridges proposed 600-mile Sandpiper pipeline that would cut through northern Minnesota potentially impacting valued manoomin wild rice beds and waterbodies in the event of pipeline leaks. In his ruling Judge Klaphake found that the Minnesota Public Utility Com- mission PUC wrongly granted a certificate of need to Enbridge without requiring a formal environmental impact statement EIS. A certificate of need is required to determine if the proposed project is necessary and in the public interest. In the past the PUC commonly considered the certificate of need and the routingcertificatetogetherrequiringaformalEIS.ButinthecaseoftheSandpiper proposal the PUC chose to separate the proceedings for each certificate handling the certificate of need first and if granted proceeding with the routing certificate and a formal EIS. The PUC did order an environmental review when considering the certificate of need but that falls short of Minnesota Environmental Protection Agencys MEPA EIS requirements. Ultimately the PUC granted the certificate of need last June but was chal- lenged by Friends of the Headwaters who appealed the PUC decision to the Minnesota Court of Appeals resulting in Judge Klaphakes decision. Project proposers Enbridge Energy and its subsidiary North Dakota Pipeline Company had until October 14 2015 deadline to file the appeal to the Minnesota Supreme Court. By Sue Erickson Staff Writer Pipelines and other forms of environmental degradation are concerning especially for manoomin. Tribes have intensified manoomin restoration efforts throughout the Ceded Territories. Above GLIFWC Wildlife Technician Adam Oja reseeds a Vilas County lake. photo by Dylan Jenning AtMazinaiganpresstimeauthoritiesareinvestigatingtwoseparatetankertrain derailmentsthatcausedfuelleakagesandcommunityevacuations.Theincidents involved North Dakota crude oil and approximately 20000 gallons of ethanol which spilled into the Mississippi River. Both occurred south of the Ceded Territory border in Wisconsin in early November. COR your neighbors to handle emergency situations. North and east of the main reserve on Lake Mille Lacs the Band holds scattered parcels interwoven with county state and federal property. The areaisruralbutoccupiedbysmallcom- munities homes and farmsteads. WithfundingfromtheUSEnviron- mental ProtectionAgency EPA Mille Lacs Band MLB officials teamed up withAitkinCountyandnearlytwodozen additional emergency service providers September 10 to plan a response to an oil spill in the ecologically sensitive landscape of east-central Minnesota. EPA contractor Tetra Tech used a mix of prerecorded television news updates and intermittent audio briefings to dra- matize a massive crude oil train derail- ment adjacent to Portage Lake and the Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Aitkin County. Seated at rows of tables within the McGregorCommunityCentermenand womenmany in uniformenumer- ated all the resources they had available in response to the disaster. Police fire ambulance and public health services were well-represented along with unanticipated players like the US Coast Guard-Duluth which would sweep in with watercraft and booms to corral oil spilling into Portage Lake. Many federal agencies work very well with the Mille Lacs Band Fronk said. With a disaster scenario like this everyone has a role to play. Fronk said many of the recent tabletop exercise participants were involved in similar MLB-sponsored trainings five years ago while some agency heads have moved on. We needed to get everybody in the room again after turnovers in significant positions. A string of dramatic accidents involving crude oil from the Bakken region of North Dakota and Montana in recent years has put public safety officials near rail lines on guard. Even thoughoilproductioniscurrentlybelow its peak rigs still pump 1.2 million barrels of crude from the Bakken fields every day. The deadly explosion in the small Quebec village Lac-Megantic lurks as a bleak reminder of how dangerous oil trains can be in 2013 an unmanned train with 72 tank cars rolled downhill into the village broke apartanddumped1.5milliongallonsof crude oil. In the inferno that followed 47 people were killed. While poorly maintained railroads and other cost-cutting decisions by rail companies has been part of the oil spill problem BNSF Burlington Northern Santa Fe Roadmaster Nels Christian- sen told the McGregor gathering that maintaining lines of communication is importantfollowingapotentialdisaster. Were experienced with this. This is something weve done before Christiansen said. Well help you out. Christiansen added that BNSF has a number of emergency-response contractors that can be dispatched on short notice to mitigate environmental damage from spills. MAZINAIGAN PAGE 2 WINTER 2015-16 By Peter David GLIFWC Wildlife Biologist MANOOMINPOLYMET With another manoomin harvest season behind us and the brown dead stalksdisappearingbackbelowthewater surface its a good time to pause and reconsider all that the good berry has given us again. While it will be months before all the post-season harvest surveys are completed and the data compiled ricers and biologists already are pretty certain that the seasonfrom a human harvesting perspectivewas a pretty good one for many. Still as is always the case individual waters showed the full range of variability in crop that is partofmanoominscharacter.And2015 reminded us that predicting what the harvest season will be like will likely always remain a fools exercise. GLIFWCs preseason surveys of beds in northern Wisconsin east cen- tral Minnesota and the western Upper Peninsula of Michigan certainly were encouraging. Beds in Wisconsin and Michigan looked above average over- all and the Minnesota waters surveyed looked simply outstanding one of the bestyearsinmostanyonesmemory.But alotcanhappenbetweenanearlyAugust survey flight and an early September harvesting tripand it usually does. In the end it looks like the harvest was above average but where the best picking turned out to be was often not where one might have guessed earlier. Winds and heavy rains hit a number of beds especially those that tended to ripen early ensuring that a bigger than usualportionofthecropwouldbegoing to feed the ducks and replenish the seed bank for future crops. Someofthedenseststandsendedup beinghurtbytheirownabundancewith thethickfoliagereducingdryingairflow betweentheplantscreatingidealcondi- tions for the outbreak of fungal brown spot disease which broke out in some of the most promising locations. And on some waters that might have looked only good in August everything came togetherproperdensitylackofstorms gradualmaturationtocreateexcellent picking conditions over a longer than average time window. This gave pickers not only an extendedtimetoharvestbuttosharethe word and participation seems to have beenparticularlyhighthisyearinanum- ber of areas. For example the number of wild rice licenses sold to Wisconsin state-licensed harvesters 854 was the second highest number in the last 20 years.2015salesweresurpassedonlyin 2009 when another very good crop and ideal weather lead to high participation. Interestingly Wisconsin license sales fell by a third in 2010. In the end folks who scouted the beds watched the weather and listened to their ricing friends often returned to the landing with their canoes well-laden with rice. One pickeroverheard at the landing of a bed planted on a state wildlifeareawasthrilledathavingher first 100 pound day saying I feel like I got a 12 point buck Noteveryricerhadthatkindofday but every ricer knows that manoomin gives in many waysnot just by its seed. Time spent with a partner in the stand surrounded by the beauty of the outdoors is a gift in itself. In the cold months ahead memories of days on the water will be warm indeed. Documenting the annual harvest is an important component of effective manoomin stewardship. Both state and tribal ricers can expect to be contacted by mail or phone to document your sea- son and your opinions on the crop and importantmanagementissues.PLEASE PARTICIPATE your information plays a critical role in the stewardship of this special gift. It is a form of giving back to manoomin while helping to preserve theharvestingopportunityforthefuture. On the cover MazinaiganscoverfeaturestheimageonGLIFWCs2015annualposter Deweigan Drum by Mille Lacs Ojibwe artist Wesley Ballinger. One 18 x 24-inch poster is available free upon request along with an explanation sheet that talks about the significance of the drum in Ojibwe culture. Additional copies are 2.50 each plus postage. Posters can be ordered online at www. glifwc.orgpublicationsindex.htmlPosters or email lynnglifwc.org. Scouting ahead pays dividends for ricers Hoyt Lakes Minn.A decision on whether to allow the first metallic sulfide mine in Minnesota to move forward is on the near horizon. PolyMet Mining has proposed a large open pit cop- per sulfide mine named NorthMet near the Mesabi Iron Range of northeast Minnesota. However for scientists from regional tribes including those at GLIFWC too many unresolved questions related to the NorthMet project linger creating unacceptable risks to Ceded Territory resources. Tribal technical staff remain concerned that the prediction and evaluation of potential environmental impacts is incomplete in many areas and fundamentally flawed in several significant ways said Nancy Schuldt Water Projects Coordinator for the Fond du Lac Environmental Program. Schuldt refers to the Final Environmental Impact Statement FEISa document that tries to predict how mining activity can affect the quality of natural resources. GLIFWC along with the 1854 Treaty Authority Fond du Lac Bois Forte and Grand Portage Ojibwe Bands are conducting an ongoing review of the 3000-page FEIS released on November 6. Earlier this year tribal authorities analyzed the preliminary FEIS pFEIS and submitted comments to the lead agenciesa trio comprised of theArmy Corps of Engineers US Forest Service and Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The co-leads are accepting public comments over a 30-day period ending in early December 2015. Once finalized the document sets the stage for regulators to decide whether or under what conditions to issue permits. For the tribes the area of most concern is water. There is a lack of quantitative estimates of the impacts to wetlands caused by disruption of the mine sites hydrology said Esteban Chiriboga GLIFWC GIS and mining specialist. We also question the technical feasibility of capturing the majority of the contaminated seepage from the proposed tailings basin. The open pit mine proposed by Canada-based PolyMet Mining Corp would stretch across the water-rich Superior National Forest in the 1854 Ojibwe Treaty Ceded Territory. Around 1000 acres of wetlands would be destroyed over the mines estimated 20-year operating life. Groundwater which way does it flow The proposed NorthMet mine is situated near a long low ridge that divides a pair of watersheds the St. Louis RiverLake Superior system to the south and the Rainy River system to the north. The Rainy River system contains the Boundary Waters Canoe Area and flows into Canada. Over the past decade PolyMet and its technical contractor have asserted that contaminated mine groundwater would flow south through the St. Louis River system. The lead agencies concurred but never ran the computer models to verify the companys findings. John Coleman GLIFWC environmental section leader did run the models and came to a very different conclusion on how the mine discharge would behave. There was weak characterization of groundwater hydrology as well as incorrect identification of conditions that will exist should the NorthMet mine be permitted and operate for 20 years Coleman said. When Coleman input correct closure conditions the companys models showed that contaminated mine water would flow north and in much greater quantities than predicted by PolyMet. The current NorthMet project is adjacent to an active taconite mine that has produced a string of landscape-altering pits and waste mounds. As miners con- tinue to remove minerals and waste rock water levels in the taconite pits will dip hundreds of feet lower than the levels at NorthMet. The problem the companys consultantshavebeenassumingtaconitepitwaterlevelsatclosurethatwerehigher than those at NorthMet. When you assume water levels are 300 feet higher than they will actually be it is impossible to make correct predictions. The site hydrology and contaminant flow need to be reevaluated using correct closure water levels said Coleman. Tribal staff remain concerned that with such a major flaw in evaluation of the groundwater system accurate predictions to impacts on natural resources are impossible. ToreadGLIFWCsfullcommentsonthepFEISseewww.lic.wisc.eduglifwc PolyMetpFEISGLIFWC_comments At PolyMets proposed mine its all about the waterBy Charlie Otto Rasmussen Staff Writer This cross-section diagram created by John Coleman is based on groundwater modeling and illustrates how low water levels in the Peter-Mitchel P-M taconite pits would redirect groundwater flow to the north. PAGE 3 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 MANOOMINGICHIGAMI ASSESSMENTS Nibi Miinawaa Manoomin Protecting two invaluable resources By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer Mille Lacs Reservation Minn.A copper vessel filled with nibi water is lifted to every direction acknowledging everything in creation that depends upon water for life. Doreen Day and a few other midekwe midewin lodge women do this work whenever called upon. A large audience of native and non-native community members and professionals take a sip of the blessed water to start this gathering in a good way.After the water ceremony is complete a prayer is offered by a young man which symbolizes the generational trend of young people carry- ing forth Anishinaabe language and culture. Last but certainly not least the local drum group renders a drum song and this sets the tone for the gathering. The 2015 Nibi miinawaa manoomin symposium marked the 3rd annual dis- cussion of the resource and its significance. Professionals in various fields along with concerned community members harvesters and tribal elders came together for a two-day discussion on manoomin water and some of the detriments and research undertakings. Agenda items included topics ranging from manoomin geneticresearchtoTraditionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKpanels.Averyunique setting indeed where elders tribal leaders and community members could share their knowledge and concerns with university department officials and other agency representatives. One particular discussion on genetic testing and reproduction of manoomin sparkedMilleLacstribalelderBrendaMoosetospeakoutontheissue.Youcouldnt pay me to use paddy rice for our ceremonies or to feed it to my grandchildren. To enjoy the real quality of wild rice we need to protect it. More and more companies are delving into the research of rice composition and DNA makeup. Many tribes are opposed to this as it is being pursued for capital gain. It also diminishes the sacred and important nature of manoomin in the Anishinaabe lifeway. Real hand- harvested manoomin is utilized in many of the Ojibwe ceremonies and feasts and is a main staple in a healthy Anishinaabe diet. Hawaiian relatives travelled far to share their struggles with environmental protection and some of their significant resources such as taro another sacred food. Also a small delegation of representatives from Washington coastal tribes participated in the discussion of revitalizing language and culture through the preservation of the environment. Many of these tribal leaders and community representatives shared common concerns and it was refreshing to see an audience of young tribal people envi- ronmental agencies and university staff listening and learning. The only way to bridge the gap of misunderstanding that exists between the academic world and the tribal communities is to listen and open the mind to a new perspective. TheAnishinaabeworldviewmaydifferfromhowagenciesandacademiamay viewthingshoweverthiswayoflifehasexistedforthousandsofyears.Anishinaabe people are still here and living proof of mino-bimaadiziwin leading a good life. Larry Amik Smallwood Mille Lacs tribal elder and emcee wished everyone safetravelsandinvitedthecrowdbackforthe2016symposium.Thedrumsounded again this time singing round dance songs to get the audience up and participat- ing. Everyone no matter where they came from danced to the same heartbeat. Fall lake trout and whitefish assessment in full swing Reward for return of depthtemperature tags The Great Lakes assessment crew which includes personnel from GLIFWCs Great Lakes Section and the Bad River Tribe are in the midst of another busy season of assessing the lake trout and whitefish populations in Michigan waters of Gichigami Lake Superior. The purpose of this survey is to determine the movement abundance and biological features of lake trout and whitefish in Lake Superior. This is accomplished by measuring weighing and tagging fish that are caught with gill nets on spawning reefs in various locations around the Keweenaw Peninsula and Marquette Michigan. In addition to tagging fish the assessment crew has collected lake trout samples that will be used by GLIFWCs Environmental Biologist Sara Moses to determine mercury levels in lake trout of various sizes. Also the assessment crew has collected lake trout samples that will be used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance program to assess the level of contaminants present in lake trout tissue. Ultimately these data will help people determine the quantity of lake trout that is safe to eat. During the assessment GLIFWC Great Lakes Section personnel are conduct- ing an ongoing archival tag study that assesses the depth and temperature that lake trout inhabit throughout the year. Last summer GLIFWC personnel with the assistance of the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community tagged ten lake trout near Keweenaw Bay with archival tags that record depth and temperature distribution of lake trout. Thus far two tagged fish have been recaptured by tribal fishermen and depth and temperature data have been extracted from the tags. The data col- lected so far have given GLIFWC biologists a valuable glimpse into the depth and temperature usage of lake trout. Ninety additional lake trout were tagged in Gichigamis Grand Traverse Bay during the fall season. If you happen to capture one of our tagged fish please keep the fish and tag then contact GLIFWC personnel at 715-685-2120715-685-2175 or visit www.glifwc.orgtag.html with information regarding your fish in order to claim your reward. Mike Plucinski GLIFWC Great Lakes fishery technician is at the helm of an assessment vessel while Ed Leoso Bad River Department of Natural Resources hauls in an assessment net as part of the annual fall lake trout and whitefish population assessments in Lake Superior. photo by Ben Michaels Ed Leoso left and Tom Houle Bad River Natural Resources Department pick fish from assessment nets in Lake Superior as part of annual population assessments. photo by Ben Michaels By Ben Michaels GLIFWC Fisheries Biologist MAZINAIGAN PAGE 4 WINTER 2015-16 The Traditional Knowledge Panel consisted of well-respected and experienced MilleLacsBandTribalmembersandeldersincludingJoeNayquonabeBrenda Moose and Henry Sam. The panel told old stories about the communities expressed the importance of cultural knowledge and conveyed concern for the health of the resources. photo by Dylan Jennings MANOOMIN Manoomin mino-bimaadiziwin Ricing a good way of living An opening prayer with asemaa tobacco a short lecture about canoe safety and the ricers were off. Fond du Lacs 13 Moons program in partnership with 1854 Treaty Authority geared up Saturday September 12th for a manoomin camp on Kettle Lake near Cloquet Minnesota. Wardens and professionals from various natural resource fields guided the event and answered questions throughout the day. Community members both tribal and non tribal were afforded the opportunity to harvest manoomin and even take part in the processing. Fond du Lac FdL community elders and experienced ricers demonstrated how to properly care for manoomin. Respected community member Sam Greensky recalls some of his personal experiences. Ive been ric- ing for over 50 years. I show and teach people these ways because not too many people do this anymore. StudentsfromFdLsNASAprogramalsoshowedupandassistedwithprocess- ingandpolingricersthroughthericebeds.Thereweremanyfirststhroughoutthe day. Some had their first canoe ride while others experienced the labor-intensive process for the first time. Across the state lines and near north centralWisconsin Bad River tribal youth also took to the waters. Grade school and middle school students spent a Saturday afternoon this season harvesting manoomin from Spring Creek Flowage near Phillips Wisconsin. All youth on the trip participated in a pipe ceremony prior to launching the canoes. Bad River community elder Joe Rose and former Bad River Chairman Mike Wiggins stressed safety and the importance of staying connected to our mother earth and the resources she harbors. Community youth worker and event coordinator Joseph Cadotte remarked It was a wonderful day. My hope is to have more planned for the kids for years to come. For those not familiar with making wild rice its a beautiful process. Har- vesting manoomin is tremendous work. However the work doesnt simply start with knocking rice into the canoe it starts with acquiring and making equipment. Push poles are made in a special manner so as not to harm the underwater root systems.Knockersarefashionedfrompineorcedarandareheavyenoughtoknock rice but light enough to preserve the plant. Traditionally a wiigwaasi-jiimaan or birch bark canoe was utilized however today many rely upon aluminum and fiberglass canoes. Onceahealthyricebedhasbeenchosenmanoominisknockedintothecanoe a few grains at a time. Once the ricers are finished for the day they will bag up the manoomin and bring it home. A few good days of sun will dry the manoomin and it will be ready for processing. In this day and age the younger generation is increasingly busy with sports and extracurricular activities. However at the core of our existence asAnishinaabe is the plant and wildlife beings that have helped the people subsist for thousands of years. In this modern generation many are losing the connection with the food and water being consumed. People are no longer forced to work hard for food while children are growing up not knowing where their food comes from. Yet there is hope as more and more youth take to the lakes rivers and into the woods. More communities are choosing to host ricing and other harvesting camps to teach youth and community members. This movement we are seeing across Indian Country isnt just about doing the work its about preserving a way of life that has survived for many generations. Its about keeping the future generation healthy. Mino-bimadiziwin is a word that describes that good way of living and the plants like manoomin are the ones that help to make this possible. By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer PAGE 5 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 FondduLactribalelderandexperiencedharvesterSamGreenskydemonstrates how to properly winnow manoomin. Greensky has been ricing for over 50 years of his life and loves to share his experiences with others. DJ Participants in the 2015Ashi-niswi Giizisoog 13 Moons manoomin camp near Cloquet MN learn how to pole and knock rice. For many of the participants it was their first time in the rice beds. Ben Bearskin a Bad River tribal youth is ecstatic to be on the water harvesting manoomin. Below Bad River youth gathered on a Saturday in September at Spring Creek near Phillips Wis. for an afternoon of harvesting and fun. DJ FOREST PESTS Tree-killing invasives on the move in the Ceded Territory By Steve Garske ANA Forest Invasives Project Coordinator OdanahWis.Invasiveinsects anddiseasesliketheemeraldashborer EAB and the oak wilt fungus are on the move in the Ceded Territory leaving dead trees and diminished forests in their wake. Ojibwe elders have told us that these beings are not bad nor evil but are simply doing what the Creator intendedthemtodo.Whetherthrough greed disregard for aki earth or plain old carelessness people have messed up by bringing these beings from far-away lands. Its up to us to try and minimize the damage. Many forest invasives are dif- ficult to detect especially in the early stages of infestation. The EAB is a good examplethe small green beetles are around for only a couple months in summer spending most of their time high in the canopy of an ash tree. Knowing the signs and symptoms of EAB infestation can help ash harvesters detect an infes- tation even when the beetles arent around. Oak wilt has the potential to decimate the Ceded Territorys oak forests. This fungal disease is deadly to oaks in the red oak group including northern red oak pin oak and black oak. The sad thing is that long-distance spread of oak wilt is almost entirely due to people mov- ing infested oak logs and firewood. This disease is very controllable IF people would stop moving infested oak logs and firewood to uninfested areas. Other introduced invasives like the balsam woolly adelgid BWA hemlock woolly adelgid HWA and Asian longhorned beetle ALB are currently not known to inhabit the Ceded Territory. Early detection of several HWApopulations in Lower Michigan transported on nursery trees illegally shipped from out east allowed the Michigan Department of Agriculture to act quickly and eliminate them. Several infestations of theALB a voracious wood-boring beetle with a love for maple have been eliminated at the cost of thousands of trees and millions of dollars. Eradication efforts continue at remaining ALB sites in southern Ohio Massachusetts Toronto and the New York area. Most tribal harvesters are aware of the gifts provided by healthy forests and the risk posed by the EAB and other invasives. Black ash harvesters have expressed concern not only for the potential loss of ash and the skills associated with weaving baskets but the stories traditions and spirituality that goes with this activity as well. They worry that even if black ash can be brought back someday the opportunity to pass this knowledge down to their children and grandchildren will be lost forever. With the help of tribal harvesters GLIFWC staff have put together flyers and other information to help harvesters identify forest invasives and recognize the signs of infestation. This information is intended to help tribal harvesters once again become co-managers of Ceded Territory forests. So keep an eye out for a mailing from GLIFWC that includes helpful informa- tion on protecting forest resources. Tribal members that have applied for Miscel- laneous Forest Product and Camping permits for the 201415 and 201516 seasons should be receiving details in the mail in the coming weeks. This information will also be available at tribal registration stations. And watch for an updated forest invasives website this fall as well. Early detection can translate into slower spread of the EAB which means that ash stands stay healthy longer and tribal members will have less trouble accessing ash for baskets and other uses. Slowing the EAB also allows time to find ways to reduce the impact of this insect. Detecting and reporting oak wilt infestations early means they can be controlled or even eradicated. By slowing the spread of the EAB and delaying or preventing the influx of other forest invasives into the Ceded Territories tribal members can hopefully continue to harvest trees for firewood medicine income and ceremonial purposes for many years to come. Slowing or preventing the spread of these invasives will also help to maintain the health of the forests and the wildlife plants and other beings that live there. Dying ash tree in Superior Wisconsin showing the typical symptoms of EAB infestation. GLIFWC photo These pin oak trees will soon succumb to the oak wilt fungus. Inset Oak wilt causes trees to drop their leaves in summer. The shallow cup shape of many of the leaves is one characteristic of oak wilt. GLIFWC photos Black ash baskets are as useful and durable as they are beautiful. These were made by Bad River member April Stone-Dahl and her husband Jarrod. GLIFWC photo Tribal members who have applied for Miscellaneous Forest Product and Camping permits for this year andor last year should be receiving these flyers in the mail. GLIFWC photo dontmovefirewood.org MAZINAIGAN PAGE 6 WINTER 2015-16 PHENOLOGY By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer and Travis Bartnick GLIFWC Climate Ecologist Clam Lake Wis.On a beautiful early fall day a gathering took place at a recently established GLIFWC phenology study site in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. Community members from Mille Lacs Lac Courte Oreilles and Bad River along with GLIFWC and US Forest Service staff came together to hold a ceremony at the Brunsweiler River and Mineral Lake Research Natural Area a few miles west of Mellen Wisconsin. Together the participants walked through the northern hardwood forest and sat down in a small opening among the sugar maple basswood and oak trees. Many of the trees were starting to show the first signs of fall displaying various shades of green with hints of yellows and oranges throughout the forest canopy. The ceremony was held to petition the spirits and acknowledge the tree and plant beings that will be monitored over the next few years as part of GLIFWCs new phenology project. The intent was to let the spirits in the area know the pur- pose and intentions of the upcoming research project. Those who gathered offered asemaa tobacco at the site. Anishinaabeg use tobacco as a median of prayer acknowledging the rocks plants animals and everything in creation. The circle was created smudged and brought to balance as the participants settled into their spots.Asemaa was passed and a moment of silence allowed every- one to put good thoughts and energies into the tobacco. A prayer in Ojibwemowin was offered and a small dish of food was also offered to the spirits that watch over the area. Recognizing this relationship as one of reciprocity in the Anishinaabe lifeway its crucial to make these offerings. Its important to remember that human beings are dependent on these other three orders of creation for survival. Next the tobacco was collected and opwaaganag pipes were loaded and passed. The smoke carried up the same positive thoughts and energies. Once the last pipe had been smoked participants shared their thoughts and stories about the importance of respecting the earth. Furthermore they asked for permission to learn from the forest and for the project to be conducted in a safe and successful manner. The stories shared by tribal members conveyed a deep understanding of the relationshipbetweenalllivingthingsandthesurroundingenvironment.ThisTradi- tionalEcologicalKnowledgeTEKhasbeenrecognizedasanimportantcomponent in helping organizations like GLIFWC implement sound management practices and promote the sustainable use of resources throughout the Ceded Territories. The ceremony included a feast which included venison maple syrup blue- berries and wild rice. The beat of the deweigan drum sounded throughout the forest as a few appropriate songs were rendered for the occasion. GLIFWC is actively maintaining culturally important traditions by weaving TEK and a science-based approach to monitor the impacts of climate change on treaty-harvested resources. Participants recognized how every time we set foot in the forest we are rekindling the relationship that exists between humans and everything in creation. Ceremonies like this help us acknowledge the role that Anishinaabeg maintain as they relate back to the aadizookaanag sacred legends. GLIFWC looks at climate change impacts on treaty resources Our world is responding to climate change in ways that are not completely understood. But one compelling indicator of how changes in climate can impact plants and animals is phenology. Phenology is the study of the timing of biological events in the life cycle of an organism. What day did the sap from the aninaatig sugar maple start running this year When did the first zhigaagawanzhiig wild leeks emerge from the ground What day was the manoomin wild rice ready for harvest Each biological event in an organisms life cycleflowers budding seeds dispersing leaves droppingis known as a phenophase. Local and regional envi- ronmental factors such as temperature precipitation and number of frost-free days can cause the timing of phenophases to vary from year to year. Some species are more susceptible to environmental changes than others. Phenology How evidence of shifting seasons can inform climate change study Over generations Anishinaabeg gatherers have developed an awareness of patterns and cues associated with these seasonal changes. As a matter of survival they needed to know when resources were becoming ready for harvest. Traditional stories illustrate how certain events in the natural world marked the start or ending of other events such as how the arrival of waawaatesi fireflies signaled the time to begin hunting waawaashkeshi deer. The timing of these events is important and some of these relationships are falling out of sync as the climate changes. Long-term evidence has shown the timing of some biological events shifting around the world. The earlier arrival of spring warmth is an example of one such shift. To help understand the effects of changes in climate on the timing of bio- logical events consider what might happen if the fur of the waabooz snowshoe hare turns white before the snows arrive or remains white long after the snow has gone. How will this phenological mismatch affect waabooz survival when its coat no longer camouflages it from predators Will the waabooz be able to adapt the timing of its seasonal color change to later first snows and earlier spring melt Assessing how shifts in the timing of seasonal changes will affect treaty resources At GLIFWC climate change program staff is learning how climate change may affect treaty resources by studying the phenology of traditionally harvested plants. To this end GLIFWC climate staff Travis Bartnick and Hannah Panci will monitor various phenological characteristics of several plants within the 1837 and By Kim Stone Policy AnalystClimate Change Pro. Coord. Kekek Jason Stark Lac Courte Oreilles legal director and Niibagiishik Russ Denomie Bad River tribal member prepare their opwaaganag pipes for the ceremony. The ceremony was offered up in a good way to begin a multi-year phenology study near Clam Lake Wisconsin. photo by Dylan Jennings The phenology study began with a ceremony to acknowledge one of the areas of study. GLIFWC staff US Forest Service staff and various tribal members gathered at the site near Clam Lake Wisconsin to offer their respects to the environment. Pictured in front left to right Steve Garske Dawn White Larry Heady Jon Gilbert and Hannah Panci. Back row from the left Sean Fahrlander Russ Denomie Tom Doolittle Kekek Jason Stark Neil Kmiecik Travis Bartnick. photo by Dylan Jennings See Phenology page 19 PAGE 7 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 Ceremony introduces phenology study to forest Shows respect and asks permission WILD PLANTSENFORCEMENT Interest in wild ginseng grows GLIFWC tribes seeking regulatory authority By Charlie Otto Rasmussen Staff Writer Odanah Wis.The medicinal root is known as little person or mamace- qtasaeh in the Menominee language said Conservation Officer William Cox at the Jiisens Tribal Harvesting Meeting August 11. Often called shang ginseng roots bulging with fleshy appendages are a venerable home remedy for woodland Indians and a popular market export to Asian countries. OfficerCoxjoinedtheGLIFWC-sponsoredgatheringtosharetheMenominee Tribes experience regulating ginseng under the federal CITES program. Three years ago the Menominee became the first tribe in the United States with inter- national export authority for ginsengsomething GLIFWC member tribes are now looking to achieve. Because of its commercial value Cox noted ginseng is a native plant vulnerable to harmful harvesting practices. Weve seen some enforcement issues over the past three years Cox said. Sometimes people are tempted to harvest younger plants. Menominee harvest codes require ginseng plants to be at least 10 years old which can be determined first by the presence of red berries then by counting the number of leaf clusterstypically 3-4 prongs. Another more thorough aging method involves adding up the number of stem scars on the rhizome the link between the root and above-ground stem. Both the harvester and certifying officer are responsible for correctly aging roots. Will Hsu a second-generation commercial ginseng dealer from Wisconsin said the 10-year-rule is important. Plants under 10 years old are just not prime. The older plants are much more potent he explained to the gathering of nearly thirty tribal representatives. Inexperienced harvesters however sometimes dig out a root and find it is too younga situation Hsu likens to catch-and-release fishing. If handled with care Hsu said immature ginseng can be replanted with success rates upwards toward 80-percent. GLIFWC organized the meeting to gatherTEK traditional ecological knowl- edge about ginseng known as jiisens in Ojibwemowin and to gauge member tribes interest in pursuing CITES authority. The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES is designed to promote resource sustainability through harvest regulation and verification of spe- cies susceptible to becoming endangered. After a thoughtful discussion between representatives from Fond du Lac St. Croix Mole Lake Keweenaw Bay and Lac du Flambeau tribal representatives determined to move forward with CITES authorization through GLIFWC. The Voigt Intertribal Task Force further endorsed theideawhichwouldaddginsengtoashortlistofresourcesthatcurrentlyincludes CITES powers for bobcat and river otter pelts. While the CITES application is a time-intensive process GLIFWC staff is working closely with member tribes and US Fish Wildlife Service officials to ideally complete an agreement prior to the next harvest season. Scattered populations of jiisens grow in rich woodlands across the Great Lakes region including Lower Michiganhome of the Saginaw Chippewa Tribe who also sent a representative to GLIFWCs meeting convened at the Bad River Housing Authority auditorium. In Ojibwe Country jiisens can be an important part of medicinal preparations for native healers. Across the Pacific Ocean on the Asian mainland Will Hsu said that ginseng is used as a tonic especially by men. People aged 50 and older use it everyday for vitality Hsu explained. FormoreinformationonginsengandCITESseewww.fws.govinternational citescop16ginseng.html Ginseng for the future Treaty and state harvesters are required to carefully sew all of the seeds from picked ginseng plants back in the vicinity of the parent plants. Ginseng. Arthur Haines New England Wild Flower Society GLIFWC officers hone situation response skills Simulated real-life situations related to drug control measures and emergencysituationscomprisedthetwo- day training for six GLIFWC wardens at the Wisconsin National Guards Volk Field Combat Readiness Center Camp Douglas this fall.The facility was avail- able to GLIFWC through theWisconsin Counter Drug Program. Historically GLIFWCs Enforce- ment Division has assisted other enforcement agencies in drug busts and responding to incidents working closely with federal state and county lawenforcementagencies.Thistraining provided GLIFWC wardens with the opportunitytoimprovetheirknowledge andskillstoeffectivelyhandlesituations related to the illegal drugs shootings or other emergency situations. Trainer Brian Kastelic Wisconsin Division of Criminal Investigation DCI provided a session on the first day reviewing potential scenarios and methods to approach those scenarios. KastelicisDCIsliaisonwiththeNative American Drug and Gang Initiative. GLIFWC wardens had the use of VolkFieldsshoothousewhichiscom- prisedoflargebanquettyperoomsapart- ment size rooms and hotel rooms. The different settings allow officers to prac- tice entering and clearing rooms where an incident may be occurring whether a domesticdisputeorashootingsaysFred Maulson GLIFWC enforcement chief. One technique that was rehearsed is called covering the patch.Two offi- cers enter a room with slightly touching shouldersbutatananglesoeachcansee in a different direction. The angle and proximity to each other helps protect a vulnerableunderarmareaoneachofficer which is not covered by a Kevlar vest. Othertrainingintendedtohelpoffi- cers reach a target were also practiced including mapping landmarking with a compass and reviewing GPS readings markingandsystementry.GPSreadings can be complicated Maulson explains because there is a military system and a publicsystem.Ifforexampleyouwere calling a medic copter they would be using the military system so you must send them the military coordinates. GLIFWC officers who attended plan on sharing the training with the entire Enforcement Division. By Sue Erickson Staff Writer GLIFWC Enforcement Officers practice land navigation skills at the Wisconsin National Guards Volk Field Combat Readiness Center Camp Douglas Wisconsin. Above Officers attending the training were from the left Riley Brooks Steven Amsler and Dan North. Inset Offi- cer Daniel Perrault. photos by Fred Maulson MAZINAIGAN PAGE 8 WINTER 2015-16 TREATY 3CHIPPEWA FEDERATION Some representatives from the delegation for the Treaty 3 meeting in Ontario Canada pictured left to right Reggie Defoe Fond du Lac Kekek Jason Stark LCO Jason Schlender LCO Neil Kmiecik GLIFWC Chris McGeshick Mole Lake Miles Falck GLIFWC. DJ See Treaty 3 page 23 PAGE 9 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 Helping each other for a better tomorrow Local delegation meets with Canadas Treaty 3 Chiefs By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer and Jason Schlender LCO Tribal Member Sioux Narrows Ont.A gathering of Treaty 3 Chiefs and surrounding communities convened on Wednesday October 7 near Sioux Narrows Ontario Canada. Visiting delegates were allowed time on the agenda and encouraged to participate in the opening ceremony. The visitors from the lower 48 specifically GLIFWC ambas- sadorsandrepresentativesfromGLIFWCs11membertribeswere asked to come prepared to discuss manoomin and education two topics of great interest. Anishinaabe people have endured many traumatic experi- ences in recent history both in the United States and Canada. For GLIFWC member tribes boat landings and even public facilities were ground zero for harassment of tribal members in the 80s and early 90s. For many First Nations a massive protest movement in 2012 which sought to obtain renewed government guarantees for treaty agreements swept through Canada known collectively as Idle No More. GLIFWC representatives traveled north towards Fort Francis to acknowledge a relationship that has existed since the beginning oftime.Awell-respectedspiritualadvisorfromOnigamingOntario was also acknowledged. Tobasonakwut Kinew visited GLIFWC many times and in 1997 at Cedar Island Canada local chiefs and leaders including Tobasonakwut gifted GLIFWC with opwaaga- nag pipes to help guide GLIFWC and the tribes into the future. Lac Courte Oreilles Tribal Council member Jason Schlender recalls his experience of the trip Boozhoo Indinawemaaganidog niin dash Manidoo Noodin indizhinikaaz Bizhiw indoodem Odaawaa Zaagaiganiing indoonjibaa. Hello my relatives I wanted to share a story with you all that is fortified by blood language culture and is a true indicator of the health of the Anishinaabe nation. Last week we had the privilege of traveling with a tribal delegation to Sioux Narrows Ontario for a Treaty 3 Summit gathering. Our delegation was invited to the Summit by Fred Kelly for preliminary discussions for laying the traditional framework for a comprehensive manoomin plan for GLIFWCs member bands and Treaty 3 bands in Ontario. Collectively the bands are concerned for the overall health of manoomin and want to join forces to see what they can do for the preservation of all the resources. Treaty 3 bands and GLIFWC have a long history of collaboration that dates back to the Anishinaabe Aki Protocol that was signed back in September of 1998. The protocol establishes that the signatory bands are connected by clan language and culture with a general purpose of protecting the resources needed for the sur- vival of Ojibwe-Anishinaabe people. Red Cliff Reservation Wis. Tribal leaders made their way to Red Cliff on Thursday September 24th for a united gathering of Ojibwe tribes in presentdayWisconsinandMichiganter- ritories. The leaders came to the table to discuss issues that each nation is facing. The meeting started with a prayer and then two songs from the drum. Eagle staffs and tribal flags were danced into the circle and the opwaagan pipe was shared with everyone in attendance. TheChippewaFederationstartedin 2012asawaytoigniteunityamongstthe various Anishinaabe bands throughout the area. Currently there are six Wis- consin Ojibwe tribes and one Michigan band that are part of the Federation. These tribes are Lac du Flambeau SokaogonMole Lake St. Croix Bad RiverLacCourteOreillesRedCliffand Keweenaw Bay. Through the Federa- tiontribesareabletoshareinterestsand concerns between their communities. The Federation is the unifying platform for the tribes to discuss and take action on issues of collective concern. Issues regarding treaty rights environment gaming drugs and alcohol language revitalization are just a few topics that elected officials and tribal nations deal with on a regular basis. Red Cliff Tribal Chairman Brian Bainbridge remarks The Federation is important because it gives the bands a chance to gather and discuss many different issues and try to work towards a common goal. It gives us the opportunity to be open and do our best for all our people. It also gives us the opportunity to talk about things thatmaynotalwaysfitontheagendafor otherorganizationsthatweallbelongto. Chief Buffalos pipe was also pres- ent among the leaders the same pipe that made its way to Washington D.C in 1852. At that point in time the fed- eral government was several years into efforts to remove Lake Superior Ojibwe people from these ancestral homelands. Promisedannuitypaymentsfoodrations andsuppliesthatnevercamemarkedthe deathofhundredsofAnishinaabepeople at Sandy Lake in 1850. The Sandy Lake tragedyalongwiththreatsofremovalled to Chief Buffalos decision to travel to Washington D.C. The delegation set out in a birch- bark canoe and the journey took nearly three months. However the group made it to Washington D.C and despite their hard travels they received resistance fromvariousofficials.EventuallyChief Buffaloandhisdelegationreceivedwhat they sought a sit down with President Filmore and some of his cabinet. They smoked an opwaagan pipe together a special one made just for the meeting. President Filmore agreed to rescind the removal order and return annuity pay- mentstoLaPointe.Thisopwaaganisstill acknowledgedtodayateveryFederation meeting. Prior to European contact many of the bands in the area were in fact one nation. Nowadays the boundar- ies that have enclosed semi-nomadic Anishinaabe people have also done damage to the unity that once existed between the people. Bringing the tribes back together as one collective voice through the Federation is not only an impressive act of sovereignty but also a way for the communities to continue historical relationships. Chippewa Federation returns to Gaa-miskwaabikaang Red Cliff Tribal Chariman Brian Bainbridge center and the Red Cliff Tribal Council interact with other tribal councils and representatives at the Chippewa Federation meeting held in Miskwaabikaang Red Cliff. The federation provides a forum for the tribes to communicate issues concerns and develop strategies to improve the health and well being of the communities. DJ By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer INLAND FISHERIES Anglers spearers unite to rebuild Lac Vieux Desert walleye population LacVieuxDesertLakeFollow- ingatrendunfoldingonotherprominent walleye waters this Michigan-Wiscon- sin border lake has an ogaa recruitment problem. Spawning adults procreate each spring but their offspringfuture spawnersarefailingtojointhewalleye ogaaranks.Concernedaboutthefuture of their shared resource the Lac Vieux Desert LVD Tribe and local property owners decided to do something about it launching a multi-year effort to rally numbers of young fish. This program the work weve done together is a great example of peoplecomingtogethertohelpthelake said LVD Chairman Jim Williams. I think it can be a model anywhere in the Ceded Territory. FromaLacVieuxDesertLakeboat- launchonce a boilerplate of tension during treaty fishing seasonswhite guys and Indians worked hand-in-hand October 5 carrying bulging nets of extendedgrowthwalleyefromahatchery truck to the waterline. The liberation of 3500 six to 7.5-inch ogaa from nearby rearing ponds marked a capstone for the 2015 season which included earlier releases of tens-of-thousands of smaller fingerlings and tiny walleye fry. Teamingupwiththetribehasbeen a great thing said Robbie Anderson a resortownerandLacVieuxDesertLake Associationpresidentwhoworksclosely with tribal pointman Roger LaBine in coordinatingresponsibilitiesthroughout the production year. Over the past two years LVD Band resourceofficialsandshorelineproperty owners have worked together to boost walleye numbers. With the tribes north shore hatchery offline for redevelop- ment attention shifted to the Wisconsin south shore where the Band recently created two large fish rearing ponds. Lake association members acquired a mobile walleye hatchery and before longtheinfrastructureclickedintoplace. On the job education While LVD fisheries staff have more than a decade of experience pro- ducing walleye fry from their hatchery located at Old Village fine-tuning pond managementtogrowlargerstockproved a tricky endeavor. We had a few little disasters said Roger LaBine with a good-natured chuckle. Tried-and-true methodscaptur- ing walleye spawning stock squeezing out eggs and milt into a mixing bowl combining the pottage with an eagle featherall went without a hitch. By late spring newly hatched ogaa were swimming the waters of two fabric- lined ponds. But a series of events over the summer including a mistimed water drawdown and clogged screens took a big bite out of overall walleye survival. LaBineandAndersonagreethatthe experiences of the past year help clear a path for greater success. And with all the permits and paperwork required by Michigan and Wisconsin Departments ofNaturalResourcescompletetheteam can concentrate on refining their ogaa craft. When production numbers reach a high enough threshold LaBine said the Tribe would look to enhance other Michigan 1842 inland waters through expanded walleye stocking. SinceGLIFWCandDepartmentof Natural Resources researchers uncov- ered the downward trend in Lac Vieux Desert walleye numbers the LVD Band has sharply curtailed harvests on their homelake.OverthelastsixseasonsLVD spearerstookogaaonlyin2012tocollect biologicalsamplesincludingearbones to help biologists better understand the population structure. Until the walleye population recovers the Band intends to meet their walleye needs from other area waters. Werestayingthecourse.Wewant to know what all the issues are with the walleye population before opening the lake to harvest again Chairman Wil- liams said. By Charlie Otto Rasmussen Staff Writer GLIFWC assessment crews survey Ceded Territory waters GLIFWC assessment crews and partners from Bad River Fond du Lac Mole Lake St. Croix and US Fish and Wildlife Service conducted fall electrofishing surveysonCededTerritorywatersinMichiganMinnesotaandWisconsin.During the fall juvenile walleye age 0 and age 1 are found feeding in near-shore lake habitat at night. Electrofishing crews sample these fish to determine year-class strength from natural reproduction or to evaluate stocking efforts. In 2015 GLIFWC crews surveyed 114 lakes including 20 joint surveys with Wisconsin DNR. Surveys in Wisconsin included some of the large flowages such as 13545-acre Turtle Flambeau Flowage and 15300-acre Chippewa Flowage. In Minnesota GLIFWC and Fond du Lac crews collaborated to survey about 90 of the shoreline on Mille Lacs Lake. Biologistsusethedatacollectedinthefallsurveystoindexyear-classstrength and classify walleye populations as sustained through natural reproduction or stocking. These surveys also provide an early indication of potential decline in walleye populations. Natural reproduction varies widely by year even on lakes with large adult walleye populations but if fall surveys show a number of years with poor or low reproduction biologists have advance warning that the adult population may decline. In these cases some management action may need to be taken to protect the walleye population and restore natural reproduction. While most of the surveys focus on lakes with natural reproduction some fall surveys are also used to assess the contribution of stocked fish to the year-class. Stocked fish can be marked with oxytetracycline OTC and fish can be examined for marks to determine the percentage of stocked fish in the year-class. Survey crews collected fish for OTC analysis from Lac Vieux Desert on the Wis- consinMichigan border. GLIFWC would like to offer a Miigwech to Ed White Butch Mieloszyk ErnestSamQuagonJoshJohnsonKrisArbuckleNoahArbuckleShaneCramb Caine Heffner Bryton Jennings Dave Moore Jim Parisien Louis Plucinski Sam Plucinski Martin Powless Bill Soulier and Dennis Soulier for all their good work on the GLIFWC survey crews this fall. We would also like to extend thoughts and prayers to long-time fisheries aide Dave Parisien as he works to regain his health after he suffered a stroke this fall. We say Miigwech to him for all of his good years of work and wish him a quick and full recovery. By Mark Luehring GLIFWC Inland Fisheries Biologist Mille Lacs Lake walleye population benchmarks met road to recovery continues The2015MinnesotaDepartmentof NaturalresourcesMNDNRfallgillnet assessmentsurveycaught13.6poundsof mature walleye per net and 4.8 walleye per net from the 2013 year-class. These catch rates exceeded two important benchmarks set by the Minnesota 1837 Ceded Territory Fisheries Committee MN37FC prior to the 2015 fishing season. The benchmarks 10 lbs per net of mature walleye and 2.15 walleye per netfromthe2013year-classweresetby the State and Tribes in conjunction with a 40000 lb harvest quota to measure the progresstowardpopulationrecoveryand determine whether walleye fishing in 2016wouldneedtobecatch-and-release only for state anglers and ceremonial harvest only for tribal members. The first benchmark focused on mature walleye since 2014s survey catchratewasthelowestonrecord11.3 lbs per net. The harvest quota for 2015 was set to maintain mature walleye biomass. The second benchmark was focused on making sure that the 2013 year-class was above the average catch rate of age 2 walleye 2.15 walleye per net since it appears to be the best year-classsince2008andseveralofthe year-classessincethenhavenotsurvived well to maturity. Between now and January GLIF- WC and MNDNR biologists will be workingonupdatingpopulationmodels andprojectingwalleyeabundanceinthe coming year. These steps will help the MN37C determine the next appropri- ate action for Mille Lacs Lake walleye population recovery. Even though the spawning biomass increased slightly in the 2015 fall survey there are several weak year-classes in the population now and the 2013 year-class has not yet contributedsignificantlytothespawning stock.Itwilltaketimeforthisyear-class to reach maturity and contribute to the establishment of future year-classes. By Mark Luehring GLIFWC Inland Fisheries Biologist Members of the Lac Vieux Desert Band and local lake association transferred extended growth walleye fingerlings from nearby rearing ponds to Lac Vieux Desert Lake in early October. The Watersmeet Trout Hatchery donated use of a tank truck to transport the six to 7.5-inch fish. photo by COR MAZINAIGAN PAGE 10 WINTER 2015-16 SAVING TERNS By Sue Erickson Staff Writer Two for the terns Two floating nesting platforms readied for spring MilleLacsReservationMinn.TheMilleLacsBandispreparingtolaunch literally speaking a new effort to assist the struggling common tern population that inhabits Hennepin Island in Mille Lacs Lake. Next spring two new breeding platforms built on pontoons will be ready to host the nesting terns in an environ- ment that hopefully will lead to more nest and chick survival. Listed as a threatened species in Minnesota common terns have been strug- gling with successful reproduction on the island for a number of years according to Kelly Applegate Mille Lacs Band biologist. Hennepin Island which is co-managed by the Mille Lacs Band and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service USFWS hosts one of five breeding colonies of com- mon terns in Minnesota. Hennepin Island along with Spirit Island is part of the Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge. Although the island hosts the largest com- mon tern colony in the state it has a poor track record with reproductive success. Its probably more of a sink than a source for the terns Applegate comments. Biologists believe 1.2 surviving chicks per nest are needed as a threshold figure to sustain the population. In the past twenty years Mille Lacsterns have met that threshold once. SowhatstheproblemApplegateexplainsthattheislandislow-lyingsubject to erosion from waves and ice shear. The rocky surface is so low that waves from one storm can wash the nests and chicks off the island. To help with this situation Applegate and Walt Ford USFWS have been adding 30 yards of pea gravel to the islands surface every five years. Another problem is competition for the nesting grounds. Gulls invade the ternsnesting area. To address this problem the co-managers have erected a string grid over the terns nesting area with openings that allow the terns to enter but prevent the larger gulls from getting through. If we hadnt acted to stop the gulls there would be no terns left now Applegate states. The pontoon nesting sites are modeled after those successfully operated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources ODNR. Dave Sherman biologist with the ODNR says they have been operating two pontoon platforms on the south coast of Lake Erie since the late 1990s and have seen successful reproduc- tion. One platform is plagued with great horned owls preying on chicks so that has created other challenges there. But the second platform is very successful he says. With a grant from the Circle of Flight program Mille Lacs will be purchas- ing two large pontoons which will be stripped to the frame. Aluminum decking will be installed along with a mesh grate. Four inches of pea gravel will provide the rocky habitat preferred by the terns. Finally the string grid will be installed above the nesting platform to ward off invading gulls. The grid will be fastened to poles welded in place so will be much easier to maintain than on the island. Another plus for the managers the floating platforms will be easier to observe from the waters edge in order to record data. The platforms will be placed in protected areas of the lake and safety issues will be considered according to Applegate. We will need reflectors possibly buoys anything that will address boating safety concerns. And how do you get the terns to moveApplegate plans on using decoys and playing tern calls to lure nesting birds to the floating sites. He also plans on getting community youth in on the action. Decoys can be carved by local college students and painted by students at the Nay Ah Shing School using a paint-by-number scheme making the project into an opportunity for community service and a place-based learning activity. Tern chicks hatched successfully on a nesting pontoon operated by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources ODNR. photos submitted by the ODNR The Ohio Department of Natural Resources positioned two nesting pontoons for common terns on the south shore of Lake Erie in the late 1990s and have experienced successful reproduction. The Mille Lacs Band is using these pontoons as models for its common tern project. A string grid cover discourages other birds such as gulls from taking over the nesting ground or disturbing the tern nests. Susan Hedman Region 5 administrator for the Environmental Protection Agency EPA spends the morning paddling Lake Pacwawong with former Bad River Chairman Mike Wiggins. Chairman Wiggins and Administrator Hedman scope out the condition of manoomin and take in the sights. Wiggins explains the significance of manoomin to Anishinaabe as it pertains to the creation story and a traditional diet. photo by Dylan Jennings EPA Region 5 Administrator Susan Hedman paddles Lake Pacwawong PAGE 11 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 DOOD AnishinaabeContemporary means of keeping order in a commu- nity are not so different from the original clan teachings in the Anishinaabe lifeway. The only way for a commu- nity to survive and to thrive is for the members to work together and respect the balance that exists between all peopleandeverythingincreation.Thedoodemtotemor clan system provided a system of order and governance for the Anishinaabeg. IntheAnishinaabewayoflifeclansarepatrilineal children inherit their doodem from the father. In some cases certain clans have been known to adopt children or community members which further exemplifies the kind and loving nature of the people. Clans designate responsibility maintain order and ultimately keep the peace. They also protect the people provide ceremonial support and extend kinship beyond modern day definitions of the nuclear family. Clans do not have the same influence as they once did. Coloniza- tion and assimilation have done severe damage to this way of life however the attributes of clan systems are very much alive today in tribal communities. When an Anishinaabe person introduces himselfherself in the Ojibwe language its quite common to hear nameclanandwherethepersoncomesfrom. very much alive today in tribal communities. When an Ginanda-gikenimaanaa We seek to learn migizi eagle waawaashkeshi deer clan makwa bear clan ajijaak crane clan IntroductionInterest in information about Ojibwe doodem clans came from organizers of the 2015 Indian Summerfest in Milwaukee Wisconsin for inclusion in teacher packets on their education day. GLIFWC composed a flyer to share some of the information we have gathered from writings of elders and scholars such as Eddie Benton-Banai and Basil Johnston and decided to further share that information through our center spread. Traditions and teachings vary from region to region community to community so this infor- mation only skims the surface of a longstanding cultural practice. We highly encourage anyone interested in more in-depth discussion to seek out a tribal elder or knowledgeable tribal community members for more information about clans. During the late 1840s rumors circulated that the Chippewa Indians who inhabited lands south of Lake Superior were destined to be removed from their homes and sent to territories west of the Missis- sippi River now Minnesota. In 1849 a Chippewa delegation traveled to Washington to petition Congress and President James K. Polk to guarantee the tribe a permanent home in Wisconsin. These delegates carried this symbolic petition with them on their journey. The animal figures represent the various totems as determined by family lineage whose repre- sentatives made the historic appeal. Other images represent some features of the tribes beloved north woods. Lines connect the hearts and eyes of the various totems to a chain of wild rice lakes signifying the unity of the delegations purpose. The above pictograph originally rendered by the Chippewa on the inner bark from a white birch tree was redrawn by Seth Eastman and appears in Henry Rowe Schoolcrafts Historical and Statistical Information Respecting the History Condition and Prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States Vol. 1 1851. The following legend details the pictographs numbered images and what they represent 1. Osh-ca-ba-wisChief and leader of the delegation representing the Crane totem. 2. Wai-mi-tig-oazhHe of the Wooden Vessel a warrior of the Marten totem. 3. O-ge-ma-gee-zhig-SkyChief a warrior of the Marten totem. 4. Muk-o-mis-ud-ainsA warrior of the Marten totem. 5. O-mush-koseLittle Elk of the Bear totem. 6. Penai-seeLittle Bird of the Man Fish totem. 7. Na-wa-je-wunStrong Stream of the Catfish totem. 8. Rice lakes in northern Wisconsin. 9. Path from Lake Superior to the rice lakes. 10. Lake Superior Shoreline. 11. Lake Superior. Reprinted with permission from The Wisconsin Historical Society Symbolic Petition of Chippewa Chiefs 1849 waawaashkeshi MAZINAIGAN PAGE 12 DEM For the Anishinaabe in the Great Lakes territories the clan system provided both strength and stability in light of previous times of chaos and hardship. The doodem system comes directly from the Creator and every clan was assigned a different role in the Midewin Lodge and associated ceremonies. In addition there existed a system of checks and balance. Clans would communicate with each other to help make decisions and solve problems. As Basil Johnston remarks in his book Ojibway Heritage the feeling and sense of oneness among people who occupied a vast territory was based not on political considerations or national aspirations or economic advantages not even uponreligionorsimilarityofvieworceremonybutuponthetotemicsymbolswhich made those born under the signs doodem one in function birth and purpose. As stated by Sean Farlander Mille Lacs Boozhoo Nisoasin indigo makwa indoodem. Hi my English name is Sean Fahrlander my Ojibwe name is Three Stone. I belong to the Bear Clan. It is important for me to always remember that I belong to my clan and not my clan belonging to me. Clans are a source of identity a source of spiritual strength a source of cultural understanding. I work hard to remember that I belong to the human race I belong to my tribe I belong to my clan I belong to my family and nothing can change this. Its who I am and whom I identify with. Boozhoo Makwa indoodemin. Brotherhood of clans doodemag In his book Ojibway Heritage Ojibwe author and scholar Basil Johnston gives a graphic presentation of Ojibwe totems as follows Leadership Defense Sustenance Learning Medicine Chiefs Warriors Hunters Teachers Healers Johnston says there were originally five totems representing the five needs of the people and the five elementary functions of society. Later others were added. He depicts totems as follows Johnstons language represents a Canadian dialect so we elected to use Ojibwe terms as found in the Nichols and Nyholm Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe with the exception of italicized words. Leadership Learning Defense Ajijaak Crane Maanameg Catfish Makwa Bear Nika Goose Ginoozhe Pike Maiingan Wolf Maang Loon Namebin Sucker Bizhiw Lynx Gekek Hawk Name Sturgeon Peepeegizaence Hawk Adikameg Whitefish Sustenance Migizi Bald Eagle Waabizheshi Marten Giniw Golden Eagle Medicine Amik Beaver Makataezheeb Brant Mikinaak Turtle Mooz Moose Gayashka Seagull Nigig Otter Adik Caribou Zhiishiigwe Rattlesnake Waawaashkeshi Deer Muzundumo Black Snake Wazhashk Muskrat Omakakii Frog Nebaunaubekwe Merman or mermaid Reproduced from Ojibway Heritage by Basil Johnston University of Nebraska Press 1990. For the Great Lakes Ojibwe the bullhead rather than the catfish is a lead doodem. Dynamics of clansMany tribal nations still adhere to their traditional clan teachings before making decisions for the people. Certain types of clans are known for their leadership and expertise in making effective decisions for their people. Some communities rely heavily upon this advice from spiritual leaders and ancestral chiefs. Typically clans are symbolized or embodied by shapesanimalsorspecificteachings.Ojibweclansinthe Great Lakes region are characterized by animals called doodemag. Just as every animal has an important role in the function of our living environment clans operate in a similar manner. Clans such as ajijaak crane maang loonmakwabearwaawaashkeshideerwaabizheshi marten giigoonh fish bineshiinh bird are seven common clans that Anishinaabe were given. Originally there were five. In addition there are several sub clans that exist in various Ojibwe communities. Other tribes use different symbols or regionsareas for their clans. For instance some Dine Navajo members belong to the near the mountain clan. Other cultures also have embraced clan systems but more typically the clans indicate a line of descent as in the Scottish clans which are noted for their clan tartans and clan shields. However the clans are not strictly family lineage because many clansmen although not related to the chief took the chiefs surname as their own to either show solidarity or to receive protection or muchneededsustenanceinthe16thand 17th centuries. Many of the clansmen were actually tenants who took on the clannameandordinaryclansmenrarely had any blood ties with the clan chiefs. In Ireland clans played a signifi- cant role in the socialpolitical struc- ture through the 17th century. While originally based on descent clans also included people who were adopted into the clan and those who joined the clan for reasons such as safety or combining of lands and resources. Clans based on lineage are also strong in Japan and across continental Africa. Clans can also denote a group united by an idea or objective. In com- mon usage today clan often simply refers to a family i.e. the Johnson clan or the Smith clan. Clans in other cultures the near the mountain clan. Reproduced from For the Great Lakes Ojibwe the bullhead rather than the catfish is a lead doodem. anig gidoodeminaanig n about the clans mikinaak turtle clan e clan waabizheshi marten clan maiingan wolf clan For the Anishinaabe in the Great Lakes territories the clan system provided both strength and stability in light of previous times of chaos and hardship. The doodem system comes directly from the Creator and every clan was assigned a different role in the Midewin Lodge and associated ceremonies. In addition Brotherhood of clans PAGE 13 MAZINAIGAN TREATY ISSUESACHIEVEMENTSENVIRONMENTAL By Sue Erickson Staff Writer WI NRB tables Rest Lake frontage sale Tribes question issue of access Bowler Wis.The Wisconsin Natural Resources Board NRB de- cided to table an agenda item relating to the sale of Rest Lake frontage to ElizabethUihleinuntilitsFebruary2016 meeting. Uihlein a major contributor to GovernorScottWalkerstruckadealwith the Department of Natural Resources to buy 1.75 acres of lakefront property on Rest Lake Vilas County. Howeverthatstretchofpublicland is also the only public access to the lake fortribalmembersexercisingtheirtreaty rightsasourceofconcernforthetribes. The Board is in no position to remove this land from the public domain so as to deny access to areas where treaty rights may be exercised wrote GLIFWC ExecutiveAdministrator James Zorn in a letter to the NRB pointing out that the loss of access would also impact state harvesters and wildlife enthusiasts. Uihleinwantsthepropertybecause she and her husband Richard own a condominium complex near Rest Lake but lack waterfront access. According to the September 19 MilwaukeeJournalSentinelreportthere havebeentwoappraisalsofthelandone at 238000 and the other at 384000. The DNR negotiated to sell the property to Uihlein for 275000. According to the Journal Sentinel Uihleinsdonatedseveralmilliondollars to the Unintimidated PAC a political action committee which suported Gov- ernor Walkers run for president. They also contributed nearly 290000 for Walkersrunforgovernor.LastJanuary RichardUilheincontributed200000to Our American Revival an organization formed by Walker early this year. Actually a number of property sales are in the works for the DNR since the Wisconsin Legislature directed the DNR to put 10000 acres up for sale by June 2017. However when this particular sale came up on the NRB agenda out of the context of the other land sales NRB Chairman Preston Cole expressed concern. Several letters to the Board addressing issues with the sale and the possibility of political favoritism prompted his tabling of any action on the sale. Zorn also questioned the handling of the transaction calling it unac- ceptable and unconscionable. He reminded the Board that the state is obligated to engage in good faith and fair dealings on a government-to- governmentbasiswiththeTribeswhose treaty rights are at stake. He also noted the lack of tribal consultation as well as lackofnoticetoandsolicitationofinput from the general public. Zorn also warned that sales such as the Rest Lake parcel can have a cumulative impact on treaty rights and wildlife habitat. They can gradually erode opportunity and habitat by being taken away in many small pieces. The Rest Lake sale will be consid- eredattheFebruary23-24NRBmeeting in Madison. Madison Wis.Chinese water dragons raptor performances small-scale mining demonstrations and outdoor youth curriculum converged in Madison at the Midwest Environmental Education Conference MEEC held the week of October 21-24. They combined to provide a rich experience at this years regional conference Promoting Access to Environmental Educational Experiences and sparked conversation in many different realms of environmental education. Wildlife conservation youth environmental camps and mining were among several subjects of interest. Wisconsin Association For Environmental Education hosted this event at the Monona Terrace located near the heart of the University of Wisconsins campus. Four conference tracks sustainable food systems education on climate change reaching underserved audiences and celebrating environmental educa- tion success stories highlighted the impacts that environmental degradation poses on everyone. Through these topics participants were offered access to the tools capable of addressing environmental challenges. A room full of environmental exhibitors boasted over 40 agencies and orga- nizations for educators and visitors to mingle with and learn about future oppor- tunities to collaborate. UW Extensions Cathy Techtmann was also a highlighted presenter featuring the G-WOW climate change curriculum that was created in collaboration with GLIFWC. Inadditiontothekeynotespeakersworkshopsandexhibitorhallparticipants could take optional tours of existing environmental landmarks and sustainable models. Tours of the Aldo Leopold Center local youth farm UWArboretum and the Audubon Society were available to participants. Itwasrefreshingtoseesomanyeducatorsandpresentersenergeticandenthu- siastic about sustaining our environment in a good way. Education is the key for preservation of the resources on which we depend. Furthermore education is the nurturing light which must foster the next generation into a sustainable mindset. Be on the lookout for MEEC 2017 set to take place in Illinois. Award winning VITF Reps The Northland College Alumni Association awarded alumnus Joe Rose Sr. Bad River the DistinguishedAlumniAward on September 26 at the Sigurd Olson Environmental Institute. The award recognizes his significant professional and personal accomplishments that have directly or indirectly brought recognition to the college. A 1958 Northland graduate Rose became a champion of the Native Ameri- can Studies program and Northlands Native American Museum both which he developed. While well known and loved as an educator he also became a vocal advocate for regional environmental causes and worked and continues to work to educate the community about Native American cultures. At its regional conference in Acme Michigan the Native American Fish Wildlife Society named Thomas Howes the 2015 Biologist of the Year. Howes a Fond du Lac FdL Band natural resources program manager is credited with making an outstanding contribution to the management and protection of natural resources in the Great Lakes region. Mazinaigan readers may be familiar with Howes through feature stories highlightinghisinvolvementwithmanoominwildriceandlakesturgeonnam. Howes is also a strong proponent of incorporating Ojibwemowin or the Ojibwe language into natural resources work and mapping projects. In recognition of that commitment to meld science and culture Director of FdL Natural Resources Reggie DeFoe presented Howes with an eagle feather. Sue Erickson and Charlie Otto Rasmussen Joe Rose Sr. left and Tom Howes. photo by Dylan Jennings Educators flock to Madison for midwest environmental conferenceBy Dylan Jennings Staff Writer FdL Chair Karen Diver accepts post at the White House Fond du Lac Band Chairwoman Karen Diver accepted an appointment to serve as Special Assistant on Native American Affairs to President Obama a decision which will move her to Washington D.C. and the White House by mid-November. Diver has served as chairwoman of the Fond du Lac Band in Minnesota since 2007 but sees this appointment as an opportunity to have a wider impact on Indian Country. Diver is familiar with the national platform. In 2013 she was appointed to serve on the Presidents Climate Change Task Force as one of twenty-six representatives nationally. Diver is handing the reins of leadership at Fond du Lac to Wally Dupuis current vice-chairman of the Reservation Business Committee. Diver has many achievements. She has led the Band successfully through numerous issues including the completion of Black Bear under budget bring- ing broadband internet to the community expanding housing and health care facilities and concluding litigation over Fond-du-Luth while always being a strong advocate for the environment. SE MAZINAIGAN PAGE 14 WINTER 2015-16 ENFORCEMENT Winter camp around the corner Sign up now Odanah Wis.GLIFWC recently received a 10300 grant from the First Nations Development Institute FNDI of Longmont Colorado. This award will support the efforts of GLIFWCs Ishpaagoonikaa Deep Snow Camp Winter Cultural Program. Targetingtribalyouthgrades4-10Ishpaagoonikaaseekstoincreaseknowl- edge and utilization of treaty-reserved rights in harvesting and protecting natural resources encourage environmental stewardship and promote natural resource careers during the winter season. Additionally the program strives to increase leadershipskillsandfosterintergenerationallearningopportunitiesbetweentribal elders and tribal youth focusing on passing traditionalAnishinaabe winter activity knowledge from generation to generation. GLIFWC sought funding to expand on the previous success of the Ishpaa- goonikaa program and successful youth leadership development of Camp Onji- Akiing From the Earth. Previously tribal elders were not able to attend the Ishpaagoonikaa program as limited funds were available which did not provide travel assistance or stipends for local or regional tribal elders. With this funding a minimum of five elders will be on staff to share their knowledge and help guide our youth during this powerful program. We are so grateful to have the opportunity for a Full Circle learning approachduringourcampswhereyouth are learning their culture from their elders essentially their family and then usingthisknowledgeandpassingitonto others states Ishpaagoonikaa Program DirectorandGLIFWCOutreachOfficer Heather Bliss. This FNDI grant enables GLIFWC tocontinuetoprovideadditionalopportu- nities for tribal youth to become mentors and leaders in natural resource manage- ment and preservation in the ceded ter- ritories and supports the revitalization of Ojibwe culture and traditions. This years Ishpaagoonikaa pro- gram will be held in Cloquet Minnesota on February 5-7 2016 during which GLIFWCs Law Enforcement Division will partner with the Fond du Lac Tribal CollegeExtensions13MoonsProgram. The program will start on Friday at 500 pm Central Time and end on Sunday at 130 pm Central Time. Youth will engage with elders and GLIFWC wardens in activities such as snow snake construction and play storytelling small game trapping brain tanning animal and track identification winter shelter building ishkode fire making outdoor survival tactics and Native Skywatchers. Please contact GLIFWC Outreach Officer Heather Bliss at 906 458-3778 hnaigusglifwc.orgforanyquestionsor additional information. Sample schedule Central Time Zone Friday February 5 500 PM Arrival 530 PM Opening Ceremony 615 PM Dinner 700 PM Cooperative games 930 PM Native Skywatchers 1030 PM Lights out Saturday Feb. 6 800 AM Breakfast 900 AM Outdoor activities 1200 PM Lunch 100 PM Outdoor activities 500 PM Return to recreation centerclan work 600 PM Dinner 700 PM Cultural crafting 800 PM Winter camp theater Anishinaabe storytelling 1030 PM Lights out Sunday Feb 7 800 AM Breakfast 900 AM Snow Snake competition 1200 PM Lunch 100 PM Closing circle 130 PM Buses depart Baama Pii By GLIFWC Enforcement Staff Ishpaagoonikaa Deep Snow Camp Cultural Program Application February 5-7 2016 Cloquet Minnesota Grades 4 through 10 eligible Full name _______________________________________________ Address _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Email address ____________________________________________ Phone ____ ____________________________________________ School attending __________________________________________ Age ________________ Tribal Affiliation __________________________________________ ParentGuardian name ______________________________________ ParentGuardian telephone home _____ _____________ cell _____ _____________ ParentGuardian email address _______________________________ Students are asked to write a statement in support of this application. Students statement Why I should be selected to attend Winter Camp and what I hope to learn. _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________ Please attach another piece of paper if needed. Application Deadline January 2 2016 Great Lakes Indian Fish Wildlife Commission Contact Heather Bliss 906 458-3778 or hnaigusglifwc.org Send electronic application to hnaigusglifwc.org Send by mail Heather Bliss 253 Silver Creek Rd. Marquette MI 49855 Or GLIFWC co Heather Bliss P.O. Box 9 Odanah WI 54861 On the ice with Red Cliffs Marvin DeFoe last years winter camp participants try their hand at ice fishing. photo by Heather Naigus PAGE 15 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 Manoomin Chiefs ate the environment and are never exposed to the traditional harvesting methods this is detrimental to Anishinaabe identity. Harvesting and hunting both weave togetherwiththeaadizookaanagtraditionallegendsandteachingsandultimately reinforce identity. The harvest practices bring forth applicable Ojibwemowin and TEK Traditional Ecological Knowledge which is invaluable knowledge. Many Anishinaabe communities are aware of this dire situation and have been revamp- ing youth programs and community events to revitalize language and culture. These things dont happen overnight but its recognized that in order to preserve resources such as manoomin we must foster environmental and cultural aware- ness in the next generations to come. A closing prayer in Ojibwemowin wished everyone well and bid safe travels to the ones heading home. It was a good weekend to rekindle friendships and to acknowledge past ogimaag leaders. Furthermore it was good to rekindle an old way of gathering putting the old Anishinaabe mindset at the forefront of a new generation. Continued from page 1 OJIBWEMOWIN Down 1. maybe 2. you 3. my grandma 4. It is cool weather. 5. over there 8. always Across 6. Lets all tell stories 7. question marker 9. the same 10. Hurry up IKIDOWIN ODAMINOWIN word play Translations Niizh2 A. Lets all go outside. Lets all put on our overshoes. Hurry B. Now lets all go snowshoeing on the snowshoe trail Lets all put on snowshoes C. As it is winter outside do you feed those birds D. Chickadees and blue jays when it is winter I see them. E. Gray jays I see them here when they come hungry. F. I feed them sun-flower-seeds and bird-seeds. G. Do you see deer fox rabbits and wolves They are admired respected always. Niswi3 Down 1. Ganabaaj 2. Giin 3. Nookomis 4. Dakaayaa 5. Iwidi 8. Apane Across 6. Dibaajimodaa 7. Ina 9. Naasaab 10. Wewiib Niiwin-4 1. On Big-Lake do you-want to spear fish through the ice gid- 2. Today when it is one oclock they are dancing here. -wag 3. Hurry up Lets all make a hole in the ice. There are a lot of fish here. -daa 4. We are spearing fish on Loon-lake the boys and girls and I. Nind...min 5. Near the woods I hear them whenas they sing those chickadees and bluejays. waad. There are various Ojibwe dialects check for correct usage in your area. Note that the English translation will lose its natural flow as in any world language translation. This may be reproduced for classroom use only. All other uses by authors written permission. Some spellings and translations from The Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe by John D. Nichols and Earl Nyholm. All inquiries can be made to MAZINAIGAN P.O. Box 9 Odanah WI 54861 lynnglifwc.org. Niswi3 Double vowel system of writing Ojibwemowin. Long vowels AA E II OO Waaboozas in father Miigwechas in jay Aaniinas in seen Moozas in moon Short Vowels A I O Dashas in about Ingiwas in tin Niizhoas in only A glottal stop is a voiceless nasal sound as in Aaw. Respectfully enlist an elder for help in pronunciation and dialect differences. English will lose its natural flow as with other world languages. -wag -daa -waad Nind- -min Gi- Dwaaige.She makes a hole in the ice. Whenif I make a hole Dwaaigeyaan Whenif you make... Dwaaigeyan Whenif she makes... Dwaaiged Whenif they make...Dwaaigewaad Aagamed minwendam. When she snowshoes she is happy. Niimiyan giminwendam. When you dance you are happy. Nagamowaad minwendamoog. When they sing they are happy. Miiiw. Thats all. Niizh2Bezhig1 OJIBWEMOWIN Ojibwe Language Niiwin4 5 21 Aaniin ezhiwebak biboong What is happening as it is winter Circle the 10 underlined Ojibwe words in the letter maze. Translations below Gii-mino-dagwaagin. Noongom dakaayaa. Ganabaj zoogipon. Wayiiba da-goonikaa. Niwii-mawadishew. Giishpin waa-mawadishiweyaan waa-gichi-dibaajimowaad. Minwendaagoziwag. Apane Nimishoomis idash Nookomis miikinji-idiwag. Gii-ikido Gigii-mikwendam ina Gookomis gaa-kidoonagised iwidi gaa-manoominiked Apane gii-ikido Nookomis GAA Bizaan Giin mii Gaa-kwanabinaayan manoomin. Giin naasaab wewebizo-apabiwining Dibaajimodaa Miigwech It was a good autumn. Today it is cool weather. Maybe it is snowing. Soon there will be lots of snow. I want to visit my relatives. If I will visit they tell great stories. They are likable funny. Always My Grandfather and My Grandmother they tease each other. He says Do you remember Your Grandma when she fell out of the canoe over there when she was ricing Always My Grandma says NO Be quiet You thusly you tipped and spilled the rice. You like a rocking chair Lets all tell stories Thank you B B O A O I Z G A E N N A I W G K W E W I I B A T Z S J Z I G O M N A H O I W D W W E I I I B S O M A A S D Z D I I N D I I S I W A G W W Z A P A N E H E I A W A A G O S H A G I D T G G E K I Z H A A D A A A. Izhaadaa agwajiing Babiichiidaa gibiitookizinan Wewiib B. Noongom aagamedaa aagamekanaang Biitaagimedaa C. Biiboong ina agwajiing gidashamag ingiw bineshiiwag D. Gijigijigaaneshiinhyag idash diindiisiwag biboong niwaabamaag. E. Gwiingwiishiwag niwaabamaag omaa biidanaadamowaad. F. Nindashamaag giizis- waabigwan-miinikaanan idash biineshii-miinikaanan. G. Giwaabamaag ina waawaashkeshiwag waagoshag waaboozoog idash maiinganag Minwaabamewizi- iwag apane. 7 4 1. Gichi-zaagaiganing ina _____ wii-akwawaa 2. Noongom ningo-dibaiganek niimi_____ omaa. 3. Wewiib Dwaaige_____ Giigoonhikaa omaa. 4. ________akwawaa_____. Maang-zaagaiganing gwiiwizensag idash ikwezensag idash niin. 5. Ziigaakwaa ninoondawaag nagamo_____ gijigijigaaneshiinhyag idash diindiisiwag. 6 VAI-She... Animate Verbs Intransitive. Akwawaa.She spears fish through the ice. Nindakwawaa.I spear fish... Gidakwawaa.You spear fish... Nindakwawaamin.We spear fish... Gidakwawaamin.We all spear fish... Gidakwawaam.You all spear fish... Akwawaawag.They spear fish... AkwawaanSpear fish... to one AkwawaagYou all spear fish through ice AkwawaadaaLets all spear fish... Gaawiin akwawaasii.No she doesnt spear fish... Gaawiin akwawaasiiwag. they 8 Online Resources ojibwe.lib.umn.edu umich.eduojibwe glifwc.org VAI B-formWhen if or While... Use suffixesThese are not full sentences. 3 9 Gijigijigaaneshiiyag wiisiniwag. 10 MAZINAIGAN PAGE 16 WINTER 2015-16 KIDS PAGE Doodem clan Boozhoo nindinawemaaganidog hello my relatives. Niin dash Makoonz Makwa doodem Odawazaiganing nindoonjibaa. My name is Makoons which means bear cub. If you noticed in my introduction it was all in our Ojibwe language.WecallourlanguageOjibwemowin.WhenIintro- duced myself I told you my name and after that I told you my clan which is makwa bear. Lastly I mentioned where I come from Lac Courte Oreilles. Our word for clan is doodem. Clans are the way that our people maintain organization. I come from the bear clan. Our people were originally the police of the community. We would patrol and solve disputes. We also spent a lot of time in the woods which made us very knowledgeable of the plants used as mashkiki. Mashkiki is our word for medicine. Other clans have different duties. Our oral history tells us that we had five original clans. However some common clans are ajijaak crane maang loon makwa bear waawaashkeshi deer waabizheshi marten giigoonh fishbineshiinhbirdmigizieagleawaazisiibullhead mikinaak turtle. When we share the same clan as someone else they are considered our relative. Do you have a clan D O O D E M P M A K W A A B A K I A J P I A N Z A I T N G Y I W J U E G F G A A C S I M I A A B H B P I S K I I I I G H M Z I G K O K P I N N M O E P G H A X N S U I V A R H H R M M M Z I I N M I Complete the word search Unscramble each Ojibwe word and write the English word for each clan animal Word Bank Doodem Giigoonh Maang Ajijaak Migizi Makwa Bineshiinh Waawaashkeshi K A J I A J A __ __ __ __ __ __ __ English __ __ __ __ __ A K A M W __ __ __ __ __ English __ __ __ __ N I A K I A M K __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ English__ __ __ __ __ __ I S H H E Z I A A B W __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ English __ __ __ __ __ __ I I S I Z A A W A __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ English __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer clan images by Wesley Ballinger floral by biskakone PAGE 17 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 JINGLE DRESS artwork by Emily Nelis MAZINAIGAN PAGE 18 WINTER 2015-16 artwork by Emily Nelis Ziibaaskaiganagoodayjingle dress Wiikaa na ginoondaanaawaa iw ziibaaskaigan onjibaamagak imaa Misi-zaagaiganing Mewinzha ingii-noondaan iw mii imaa wenjibaamagak Misi-zaagaiganiing iniw ziibaaskaiganan mii imaa wenjibaamagak. Gaa- izhi-gagwejimagwaaingiwakiwenziibaniigGegetnaomaagii-onzikaamagad iw ziibaaskaigan Yeah mii omaa gaa-onjikaamagak gii-ikido akiwenzii. Have you guys ever heard about the jingle dress coming from Mille Lacs I heard a long time ago that those jingle dresses come from Mille Lacs that is where they come from. So I asked those old men Is it true that the jingle dress comes from around here Yeah it comes from around here one of the old men said. Omaagoniisaakingiwniimiidiwigamigongimaamiiimaagii-pawaajiged aw akiwenzii. Ogii-pawaanaan iniw ikwewan niiminid. Namanj daso-dibik gaa-pawaanaagwen. Right down the hill from the dance hall thats where that old man had the dream. He dreamt of a woman dancing. Im not sure how many nights he dreamt of her. Niiwin gii-inaandewan iniw ziibaaskaiganan. Gii-miskwaawan gii- ozaawaawanmiinawaa-ge...redbluegreenandyellowgii-ozaawaawan1 gii-ozhaawaskwaawan miinawaa gii-miskwaawan. Ozhaawashkwaa. Miinawaa yellow is ozaawaa naa-sh iw meskwaag four colors ogii- pawaadaanan. Mii gaa-inaabandang aw akiwenzii iidog. The jingle dresses were four colors. They were red yellow and... they were yellow green blue and they were red. There is blue green. And yellow is ozaawaa and that red one he dreamt of four colors. That must have been what that old man saw in his dream. Miishingodinggaa-izhi-wiindamawaadiniwowiiwanOonibawaanaag ingiw ikwewag niimiwaad waanda-mayagibagizowag igo. Namanj igo daso- dibiknamanjdasodibikimbawaanaanamanjdaso-dibikbewaanaa.Namanj igo daso-dibik azhigwa nibawaanaag ingiw. So then he told his wife Oh Ive been dreaming of women dancing danc- ing in a real strange way I dont know how many nights. I dont know how many nights I dream of her how many nights she is the one I dream about. I dont know how many nights I dream of them. Aa gagwejimigod iniw wiiwan Aaniish aaniish ezhinaagoziwaad Then his wife asks him What did they look like Gaa-izhi-wiindamawaad waanda-mayagibagizowag gaye ikido. Then he told her They were dancing really strange too he said. Aaniish naa epagizowaad How were they dancing Gaawiin ige gii-paa-biimiskobagizosiiwag Gaawiin ge gii- azhebagizosiiwag.Miietagoniigaanepagizowaad.Waanda-wajepibagizowag igo. And they werent spinning around while they danced and they didnt dance backwards. They only danced forward. And they were dancing very quickly. Mii miinawaa gaa-izhi-bawaanaad gaa-izhi-wiindamawaad miinawaa iniw owiiwan. And then he dreamt of them again and then again he told his wife. Ambe daga waabandaishin akeyaa gaa-apagizowaad. Please come show me how they were dancing. Miish aw akiwenzii iidog gaa-izhi-waabandaaad iniw owiiwan akeyaa gaa-apagizonid iniw ikwewan gaa-pawaanaajin. Gaa-izhi-wiindamawaad ge gaa-inaandenig iniw ziibaaskaiganan. So then that old man must have showed his wife how those women he dreamt of danced. Then he told her what colors the jingle dresses were. Indaga inga-ozhitoonan iniw gii-ikido aw ikwe. Gaa-izhi-anoonaad iidog iniw aanind ikwewan Daga bi-wiidookawishig niwii-ozhitoonan ziibaaskaiganan. Let me make them said that woman. Then she must of hired some of the other ladies Come help me. Im going to make jingle dresses. Miish imaa gaa-izhi-ozhitoowaad. Miish aw ikwe iidog gaa-izhi- gikinooamawaad ge iniw ikwewan akeyaa gaa-apagizonid iniw gaa- pawaanaajin aw akiwenzii. So then they made them. Then that woman must have taught the other women how to dance like the one that old man had dreamt of. Mii dash gaa-ikidod aw gaa-wiindamawid Oo ingoding dash imaa niimiidiwaad imaa agwajiing gii-tazhi-niimiidiwag ikido. Mii iwidi gaa- izhiwaad. So the one who told me had said Oo at one time when they went to dance with each other at a ceremonial dance outside he said. So thats where they went. By Larry Amik Smallwood Mille Lacs Elder 1 Ozhaawaskwaa means both it is green and it is blue in Ojibwe. To know when a speaker is talking about an object being green versus blue you need to figure out the context in which it is used. In this story Amik does not make a distinction between green and blue in Ojibwemowin but in English explains that one of the dresses was green while another was blue. Naanaidaa dash aw akiwenzii miinawaa aw ikwe ogii-ayaawaawaan odaanisiwaan obamichiganiwaan iniw ikwezens gii-waanda-aakozi ow apii. Mii imaa waabooyaan gii-atoowaad. Mii imaa zhiingishing aw ikwezens ayaakozid.Iidoggaa-ishkwaa-bagijigewaadimaaniimiidiwaadmiigaa-izhi- bazigwiidawininiawakiwenziigii-wiindamaagedakeyaagaa-inaabandang. It just so happens that that old man and woman had a daughter they were raising and she was really sick at this time. And they put a blanket there. Thats where that sick girl was laying. Supposedly after they had finished making their bundles at the dance thats when the man that old man stood up to tell them about his dream. Ingii-pawaanaag ingiw ikwewag niimiwaad. Mii ow akeyaa epagizowaad gii-ikido. I dreamt of ladies dancing. This is the way they dance he said. Gaa-izhi-nagamowaad ingiw ininiwag miish ingiw ikwewag gaa-izhi- biizikamowaad iniw niiwin ziibaaskaiganan bakaan gaa-inaandenig gii- chi-niimiwaad imaa. Naanaidaa-sh aw ikwezens ogii-minotaanan iidog iniw wegodogwen imaa gaa-noondamogwen gaa-izhi-ombikwenid gii- kanawaabamaad. Mii go geget akina awiya ogii-minwaabandaanan iniw niimiwaadingiwikwewag.Miietagoogoodaasiwaanmiinawaaobashkwegino- makiziniwaan miinawaa imaa oshtigwaaniwaang gaa-piizikamowaad. Gaawiin gegoo ogii-takonanziinaawaa mii eta go omashkomidensiwaan. Miish gaa-ikidod aw akiwenzii. So then those men sang then those four ladies who wore the jingle dresses which were of the different colors danced vigorously there. That girl must have liked the sound of those jingles what she must have been hearing she raised her head to watch them. Indeed everyone liked the sight of them as those women danced. It was only their dresses and leather moccasins and what they wore on their heads a headband. They werent holding anything except for their little purses. That is what that old man said. Eshkam igo ikwezens gii-namadabi ganawaabamaad iniw naaminijin. Azhigwa dash gaa-ni-dibikaabaminaagwadinig azhigwa ani-dibikadinig mii ge-wiin aw ikwezens gaa-zhi-bazigwiid gii-wiijishimotawaad iniw ziibaaskaiganan gaa-piizikamowaajin. Gradually that little girl sat up watching the ones who were dancing. And now it was dark out night was falling and then the little girl too stood up to dance with those ones who wore jingle dresses. Miiimaagaa-onji-maajiishkaamagakiwjingledressgii-ikido.Akiwenzii ingii-wiindamaag miinawaa-ge aanind ingiw ikwewag ingii-wiindamaagoog idi Misi-zaagaiganiing. Geget mii imaa gaa-onji-maajiikaamagak.Ayaawag dash imaa Misi-zaagaiganiing gaa-inawemaawaajin iniw aw akiwenzii gaa- inawemaajin.GeyaabiiniwoozhishenyanimaaayaawanMisi-zaagaiganiing. That is where the jingle dress started he said. The old man told me and some of those women told me that as well over at Mille Lacs. Indeed that is where it originated. And there are even people at Mille Lacs who are his relatives who are related to that old man. Today his grandchildren are still living at Mille Lacs. Mii akeyaa gaa-izhi-noondamaan. Ingii-kagwejimaag aw weweni ingiw chi-ayaaaggii-tibaajimotawiwaaddashiw.Miinoongomwenji-gikendamang iw ziibaaskaigan healing dress wenji-izhinikaadamang aw ikwezens gaa- pazigwiid. See Ziibaaskaiganagooday page 22 HEALING CIRCLE RUN 2015 Healing Circle Run It is said that healing begins with the individual. Once the individuals have healed they can help to heal a family. Once a family has healed a community can heal. The 2015 Healing Circle Run broke away after a beau- tiful ceremony at Pipestone Creek in Lac Courte Oreilles Wisconsin. Core runners began the first leg to Lac du Flam- beau covering the first stretch of the seven-legged journey that connects eight tribal communities. This year runners from all the various communities really stepped up and took on more miles than usual. Its such a beautiful thing to see so many people work together. Its also incredible to see intergenerational participation in the run. Mole Lake tribal member Robert Van Zile speaks of his granddaughtersparticipation in the run. They do the Healing Circle Run because they enjoy running. They like who they are and this is good for their identity as Anishi- naabekwewag. We spend the miles talking laughing and expressing ourselves in Ojibwemowin. Every morning and evening ceremony brought some- thingunique.Whetheritwaswordsofencouragementthings to ponder or random acts of kindness everything came together as it was supposed to be. Lac Courte Oreilles tribal member Jenny Schlender reminisces I do the run because I know that every year I get the opportunity to strengthen my mind and body as we offer our prayers with each mile. Its a chance to be with family and to do something positive for our communities. Each year that we do the run we not only get to remember the years prior but we get to make new memories that carry us to the next year. The run coordinators and GLIFWC staff would like to acknowledgeeachcommunityfortheirwonderfulhospitality and participation. Wed like to extend a big chi miigwech to all core runners walkers participants and kind people encountered along the way. Everyones efforts helped make the circle complete. Plan to join the runwalk next year. The 2016HealingCircleRunisanannualeventscheduledtostart on July 9 next summer and follow the course concluding at the Lac Courte Oreilles reservation on July 15. Joinus.Itsgoodmashkikimedicineforbodyandsoul Healing begins with the individual By Dylan Jennings Staff Writer Upper left Group of runners starting from Pipestone Creek in Lac Courte Oreilles Wisconsin. Everyone is ready to put in some miles. Bottom left Even the young ones are eager to help walk a few miles. Jayda Schlender and Lovie VanZile do a mile carrying the runners staffs all the while carrying a smile. Bottom right Lac Courte Oreilles Tribal Chairman Mic Isham starts the 2015 Healing Circle Run as he proudly carries the Jim Schlender Sr. zaagajiiwe Eagle Feather Staff. photos by Dylan Jennings 1842cededterritories.Someofthetargetedspeciesincludeaninaatigsugarmaple wiigwaasaatig paper birch zhigaagawanzh wild leekramp giizhik northern white cedar wiigob basswood zhingob balsam fir odeimin strawberry waagaag ostrich fern and miskomin raspberry. Traditionalknowledgewillbecollectedthroughinterviewswithtribalgather- ers to gain a better understanding of how climate change may impact traditional harvesting. Two study sites have been established one in the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest CNNF and a second in the Penokee Range in Iron County Wis- consin. These sites were chosen in part because they are protected from timber harvest and are representative of other regions where Anishinaabe gatherers have exercised their treaty rights to gather resources. The overall goal of the phenology study is to gather baseline data to look at trends in the phenology of these species over time. This will help GLIFWC better understand whether climate change will impact traditional tribal gathering. The climate change program will also depend on traditional ecological knowledge TEK from GLIFWC member tribes to learn more about these species and how their phenology may have influenced cultural traditions and stories in the past. The program will use cutting-edged climate data to understand what climate change in the Ceded Territories may look like in the future so tribal members can adapt to changes that seem inevitable and work to prevent those that could be avoidable. As the program continues GLIFWC will use research results to help guide management strategies and create adaptation plans for tribal resources in the Ceded Territories. Interested in watching the seasonal changes Use the Phenology Calendar included in this issue of Mazinaigan. Studying the phenology of traditionally gathered plants How to use the Phenology Calendar To use the Phenology Calendar write down any interesting changes that you see happening in nature throughout the seasons. For example you could write first ripe blueberries on the date that you notice the first ripe blueberries at your favorite patch. You might see other changes when youre in the woods in your yard or on your way to work or school. Use the events we listed as a way to start thinking of different observations you can make throughout the year. Since space is limited on the GLIFWC Phenology Calendar consider writing down your observations in a journal or notebook. Have fun observing the natural world PAGE 19 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 Continued from page 7 MIKWENDAAGOZIWAGWATER WALK Mikwendaagoziwag Run at 15 and about that stone on Madeline Island By Charlie Otto Rasmussen Staff Writer With a spirit dish and shaker in hand Kabapikotawangag LakeoftheWoodselderFred Kelly sings an ancestral song prior to the Mikwendaagozi- wag feast at Sandy Lake Min- nesota July 29. More than 350 children women and men came together to recognize the sacrifices of the Ojibwe people of 1850. Inset Strong west winds during the ceremonial paddle forced all watercraft back except for one canoe with Neil Kmiecik and Booj LaBarge right. photos by COR Where the Sandy River begins its short downstream run connecting Big Sandy Lake to the Mississippi a nearby glacial knoll buzzes with activity. Bundled against negative four-degree mid-morning temperatures a gathering encircles a large potato-shaped hunk of red granite set upon a concrete base of faded crimson. The men and women wearing running shoes do their best to shake off the cold stretching and kicking at the frozen snow-covered ground as they wait for the sunrise ceremony to begin. At last a car carrying Tobasonakwut Kinewthe late Ojibways of Onigaming spiritual leaderpulls into the parking lot below. Gerry DePerry GLIFWC Deputy Administrator unloads as soon as Kinew is in earshot Where the heck you been Kinew strides into the gathering carrying a colorful medicine bundle and grins The suns still rising. Its December 2 2000. And so it was with humor deep appreciation and some small measure of discomfort people came together for the Mikwendaagoziwag Run recreating perhaps the most poignant chapter of the Sandy Lake Trag- edythedefiantreturntoOjibwehomelandsinWisconsin. OnehundredandfiftyyearsearlierUSgovernmentofficials completed a partial annuity payment to treaty tribes at the newly established Sandy Lake Indian Sub-agency. Min- nesota Territorial Governor Alexander Ramsey and others hatched a plot to illegally lure Ojibwes and their annuity money west of the Mississippi River to the future state. But the ploy was a grim disaster resulting in 400 Ojibwe deaths including 230 Ojibwes who died trudging their way back east against the teeth of winter. While honoring the sacrifice made by the Ojibwe of 1850whorefusedtoabandontheirtreaty-guaranteedhome- lands the 2000 Mikwendaagoziwag Run further created a ceremoniallinkbetweenthetwo-tonmonumentstoneatSandyLakeanditsgranite foot installed at Madeline Islands Ojibway Park. Months earlier GLIFWC staff oversaw preparation of the massive stone in Mosinee Wis. In order to mount the stone to the concrete pedestal under construction at Sandy Lake engineers created a flat surface by cutting off a small end piece which tribal advisors ordered to the Islandthe spiritual centerpiece of the Ojibwe Nation. This is part of the connection between Sandy Lake and Madeline Island DePerry explained. And its significant in that the Island was the original annu- ity distribution site before they moved it to Sandy Lake in 1850. Annuity dis- tributionscash durable goods and other supplies paid to treaty tribal members in exchange for land titlesreturned to Madeline Island after an 1852 meeting between Chief Buffalo and US President Millard Fillmore. The Mikwendaagoziwag Run included 17 core runners and 14 additional participants. Runners and walkers alike carried one of four ceremonial talking sticks crafted by Red Cliffs Marvin DeFoe. Adorned with the colors of the four directionsred yellow white and bluethe sticks were also integral to talking circles and fireside ceremonies on the frigid relay-style journey December 2-4 2000. These same sticks are ever-present at GLIFWC Voigt Intertribal Task Force and Board of Commissioners meetings and additional high-level gatherings with other agencies. At the Mikwendaagoziwag Runs closing ceremony near LaPointe on Madeline Islands southwest shoreline Sokaogon Mole Lake elder Fred Ackley articulated the importance of actively commemorating sacrifices of the past. After all mikwendaagoziwag means they are remembered. Through this we connect with our ancestors and become more involved in the meaning of treatiesthe humanelementsnotjusthuntingandfishing.Itisrespect- ing what they did for us today Ackley said. 2015 Mikwendaagoziwag ceremonyWater Walkers Thedangerofoilspillswasthefocus of the 2015 Mother Earth Water Walk. Following the path of the Anishinaabe migration from the East coast the 2015 Mother Earth Water Walkers set out on June 23 from Matane Quebec on a jour- ney that would conclude on Madeline Island on August 29. WalkersactuallyjourneyedtoSpirit Island near Duluth Minnesota and then returned back to Madeline Island. Both are places where the Sacred Megis Shell appeared to migrating ancestors indicating they had arrived at their new homeland where food grows on the water. Thiswasthe10thyearthataMother Earth Water Walk took place since the original walk around Lake Superior in 2003. Inspired by the message and example of Josephine Mandamin OjibweelderfromThunderBayOntario supporters have joined her to help carry the copper bucket of water countless miles around all of the Great Lakes raisingawarenessofwaterissuesandthe role of women as keepers of the water. The message as usual focused on theneedtorespectandprotectourwater resources. But the 2015 message was particularlyaimedatrisksfromoilspills through train derailments or potential spills from cargo ships in the Great Lakesamessagewhichresonatedinthe OjibweCededTerritoriesduetoconcern about expanded pipelines. The Great Lakes inland lakes rivers streams wetlands all need to be considered and protected from potential degradation. Some GLIFWC staff Bad River members and Midewomen joined the walkers at Wakefield Michigan as they headedtowardsBadRiver.WaterWalk- ers were greeted with a Drum Song as they entered the reservation on August 18 where they were also welcomed by former Tribal Chairman Mike Wig- ginsTreasurer Raeann Maday and later celebrated with a community feast and visit before beginning the journeying to Spirit Island. Once they reached the Island GLIFWC Warden Dan North was able See Chi miigwech page 22 photo by Charlie Otto Rasmussen MAZINAIGAN PAGE 20 WINTER 2015-16 RESOURCESNEW STAFF New language book and workbook for kids plus teacherparent guide Sponsoredbyagrantfromthe Administration for Native Ameri- cans the Nenda-gikendamang Biboonagakprojectjustcompleted the Biboon Winter book set.This is the first one out in an upcoming series. The set consists of a story- book workbook and a teacher parent edition. The storybook tells about Nigig and his journey to spear fish in the winter. Along the way he meets Waagosh Bizhiw Maiingan and Gijigaaneshii. Directed at children in grades K-5 the workbook includes color- ing pages wordsearch crossword puzzlesandotheractivitiestoteach and strengthen the language skills of youth at different levels. The teacherparent edition will help teachers and parents guidechildrentolearnandimprove their Anishinaabe language. The storybook and workbook are both monolingual in Anishinaabemowin only. The teacherparent edition includes Anishinaabe plus English translations of activities and the storybook. Storybooks 2.00 workbooks 1.50 and teacherparent edition is 3.00 prices do not include postage. Find it at GLIFWCs website www.glifwc.org and click Resources. Join Nigig Waagosh as they gear up for wintertime fun on GLIFWCs new interactive website httpglifwc-inwe.com Want boneless northern pike fillets CheckoutGLIFWCsinformationalvideoonfilletingginoozhenorthern pike as demonstrated by former Bad River Tribal Chairman Mike Wiggins. Wiggins turns out five nice looking fillets. Find it on YouTube at httpswww.youtube.comwatchvgez3KVixTDY Trouble avoiding commercial nets in the Great Lakes Check out this piece Avoid the Trap What Anglers Should Know about Commercial Fishing Nets a fishermens guide to avoiding trap nets and gill nets in the Great Lakesand what to do if you get tangled. Sea Grant GLIFWC and additional partners collaborated on a short video to help Great Lakes anglers avoid and manage entanglements with commercial fishing nets. States and tribes both issue limited commercial fishing permits in the upper Great Lakes. Find it on YouTube at httpswww.youtube.comwatchv8OKxHK0JfxYlist PLFXNmBtWd9iFMgwoutP0tzFpBg3pxcV-k Check out all of GLIFWCs YouTube videos at httpswww.youtube.comuserglifwc Educational Resources Coming aboard GLIFWC as a full time staff focused on climate change Kim Stone brings expertise in both law and journalism. Offi- cially Kim is GLIFWCs climate change coordinatorpolicy analyst andischargedwithbringingtogeth- er various aspects of GLIFWCs climate change program. The program will explore the potential impacts of climate change on resources valued by the Anishinaabe in the Ceded Ter- ritories. However at the moment she has another GLIFWC hat one which she has worn since last Sep- tember when she began revamping GLIFWCs publication on mining The Process and the Price. As a consultant to GLIFWC she began working on updating the booklet and writing a legal section for the publication. Kim is a Stillwater Minnesota native. She received her doctor of jurispru- dence from the University of Oregon Eugene. She is also currently enrolled in the University of Minnesotas Humphrey School of Public Affairs pursuing a masters degree in public affairs. In years past Kim has been something of a globetrotter traveling and work- ing in New Zealand and Chile but ultimately she and her husband Scott Miller headed to Alaska where they lived for 15 years. Kim practiced both private and governmental law while in Alaska. Tiring of the extremely cold and dark winters the family returned to the lower 48 several years ago moving to Washburn Wisconsin. Scott continues his work remotely as a data manger for the National Park Service. Kim and Scott have two children Sigrid 11 and Tor 8. Kim joins them on the ski hill and snowboarding when possible. She also enjoys jogging for exercise. However when there is free time in her very full schedule she and Scott work towards making their 1920s home more energy efficient. Sue Erickson GLIFWC welcomes new staff Coming all the way from sunny California Kylie Harris joined GLIFWCstaffonOctober5asGLIF- WCsrecordsmanagementspecialist. This is a new position and Kylie is challenged with developing a records management system and archive for GLIFWC in order to preserve the organizations institutional memory. She will be considering long term preservation establish a basic inven- tory and do a needs assessment. Kylie grew up in Portola Valley in the bay region of California. She attendedtheUniversityofCalifornia Berkeley graduating with a bachelor of arts in sociology. She continued her studies to earn a master of library information science from UCLos Angeles where she focused on archi- valstudiesandconcernsofindigenous communities. While attending the university Kylie also gained work experience through employment at the Library Conservation Lab and interned at Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Park where she processed collections in the archives. An opportunity for an internship with the United Nations brought her to Geneva Switzerland where she assisted with the UNs Joint Inspection Units evaluation of archive and records management functions across the UN. Following graduation she worked at Computer History Museum Mountain View California as an archivist but then returned to the UN Conference on Trade and Development when another opportunity rose to develop an archive and a records management program there. Returning home after six months at the UN due to an illness in the family Kylie took a position with the San Francisco Mari- time National Park as an archivist where she worked until arriving at GLIFWC. Kylie is living in Ashland Wisconsin and still studying. She is taking an online course from the Institute of American Indian Art on repatriation and prob- lems related to international repatriation. When not working or studying you may find Kylie at the Black Cat Coffee House or enjoying a hike or run. She also likes movies reading and dabbling in ceramics and drawingpainting. SE Kim Stone Kylie Harris PAGE 21 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 WALKING ON Prolific Anishinaabe author walks on Basil Johnstons worksa rich resourceDr. Basil Johnston Order of Ontario Queens Jubilee medal recipi- entlovedfatherandgrandfatherpassed away in Wiarton Ontario on Tuesday September82015attheageof86years. AprolificAnishinaabe author Johnston led a remarkable life. His numerous books have been a rich resource for GLIFWCs Public Information Divi- sion over the years. For that we say chi miigwech Basil was raised on Neyaashi- inigmiing Cape Croker First Nation attended Spanish Residential School and graduated from Loyola College in Montreal. In 1959 he married Lucie Desroches. BasiltaughtatEarlHaigSecondary School in North York until 1970. From 1970 until his retirement he worked at the Royal Ontario Museum. Proud of his Anishinaabe heritage and fluent in both English and Anishi- naabemowin he was one of the first First Nations authors in Canada. He produced over 18 books many studied in elementary secondary and post sec- ondary schools. Basils work was recognized with numeroushonorsincludingtheNational Aboriginal Achievement Award Order of Ontario Queens Jubilee medal and honorary doctorates from University of Toronto and Laurentian University in 2009 and 2010. BasilJohnstonleftarichlegacythat honors Native peoples. It will endure. Forthiswearegrateful.MiigwechBasil. Informationderivedfromanobitu- aryrunintheSeptember112015edition of the Toronto Star. Sue Erickson Staff Writer Books by Basil Johnston or containing his work By Canoe and Moccasin Some Native Place Names of the Great Lakes Crazy Dave Dancing With a Ghost Exploring Indian Reality by Rupert Ross Introduction by Basil Johnston Honour Earth Mother How the birds got their colours Gah windinimowaut binaesheehnyuk widinauziwin-wauh Indian School Days Mermaids and Medicine Women Native Myths and Legends Moosemeat and Wild Rice Ojibway Ceremonies Ojibway Heritage Ojibway Tales Tales of the Anishinaubaek Tales the Elders Told Ojibway Legends The Bear-Walker and Other Stories The Manitous The Spiritual World of the Ojibway The Star-Man And Other Tales Kenneth W. Toebe 80 formerly of Hayward and Rice Lake died Sept. 16 2015. Ken was a staunch advocate for encouraging inter-cultural communica- tionsandunderstandingduringthe1980s when treaty rights were first exercised and race relations were strained across northernWisconsin.Hetookastronglead in drawing community people together around common goals rather than encouragingdivisivenessintheHayward area.GLIFWCsayschimiigwechforthe strong hand he reached out to the tribes during troubling times. Ken was born Feb. 13 1935 in Woodville Wisconsin. He earned a bachelor of science degree at University Wisconsin Oshkosh in 1958 and a masterofartsdegreeatEasternMichigan University in 1966. Ken taught English at several schools in Wisconsin from 1960 until 1975. He was chairman of the English department of Hayward Community Schools from 1969 to 1975. HewastheownerandoperatorofSunsetLodgeinHayward.Kenwasthevice president of Hayward Lakes Resort Association the president of Lost Land-Teal Resort Association a member of the advisory board Wisconsin Indian Resource Council and a member of Honor Our Neighbors Origins and Rights New Begin- ningsTaskForceOnIndianAffairsWest-CenterWisconsin.Hewasalsoamember of the parish planning board of First Lutheran Church of Hayward. He married Carol Jean Odegard in 1981. She preceded him in death in 1993. Some information taken from his online obituary. Sue Erickson Staff Writer Ken Toebe tribal advocate and peacemaker walks on Ziibaaskaiganagooday to take a small group to the north end of the Island where the water was released with prayer and song. At mid-day the completionoftheir2015WaterWalkwas celebratedandhonoredwithThreeFires GrandChiefDr.EddieBentonpresiding. About100wereinattendanceincluding Islanders and surrounding community members.AFeast was prepared and the event concluded with a Gift Bundle to Josephine and the Core Walkers. Miigwech to those participating in or otherwise supported the challenging Mother Earth Water Walk. We hope to carry the message that we must respect honor love and protect the Creators gift of fresh pure palatable water. SE Continued from page 20 Chi Miigwech to the Water Walkers Essential Ojibwemowin chi miigwechbig thanks MAZINAIGAN PAGE 22 WINTER 2015-16 That is the way I heard it. I properly asked those elders to tell me about it. That is why we know today that jingle dress is a healing dress because that little girl stood up. Ingiw dash ingii-wiindamaagoog ingiw ikwewag iwidi Zhaaganaashii- akiing namanj ezhinikaadamogwen ganabaj ayiii. Mii dash iidog imaa Zhaaganaashii-akiing gaa-izhiwidoowaad iniw bezhig. Ganabaj bezhig ogii- izhiwidoonaawaa iw ziibaaskaigan iwidi gii-o-dibaajimowaad iwidi keyaa gaa-onjibaamagadinig miinawaa akeyaa gaa-inaabandang aw inini. Mii ge- wiinawaa idi gii-odaapinamowaad iw. But also I was told by those women that in Canada I dont know what they call it. I think they must have taken one to Canada. I think they took a jingle dress up there and told the people over there about it where it comes from and the dream that that man had. They too accepted that. Miinawaa gaye ingii-ayaawaanaanig indinawemaaganinaanig inday- aawaanaanig sa go iwidi keyaa Gaa-waabaabiganikaag. Mii ge iwidi gaa- inikaamagak iw bezhig miish ge-wiinawaa idi gii-miigiwewaad idi akeyaa Bwaanakiing mii gaa-onji-maajiishkaamagak iw ziibaaskaigan. Anooj gii- paa-izhaamagad noongom dash baataniinowag ingiw baazikangig iw. And also we have had relatives and still have relatives of ours over at White Earth it went over there as well. They too gave one away to the Dakotas thats where the jingle dress started over there too. It has traveled all over and today there are many who wear it. Bangiishenhwagiziwag ingiw netaa-ziibaaskaigebagizojig. Noongom bakaan apagizowag gagizhibaashimowag ayazheshimowag akina gegoo- anooj igo iniw wesewanan odakonaanaawaa badakibinweowag gaye. Akina gegoo anooj ayinaandewan. Gaawiin wiin iw traditional jingle dress aawan- zinoon iw. Iniw eta go the red blue green and yellow mii iniw akeyaa gaa- izhinaagwakwayeshkad.Indayaaminomaageyaabiniiwininiwziibaaskaigan. There are only a few who are good traditional jingle dress dancers.Today they dance different spinning around dancing dancing backwards everythingthe different fans they hold and feathers in their hair. They are all different colors. That is not a traditional jingle dress. Only the red blue green and yellow those are how the original ones looked in the beginning. We still have four original traditional jingle dresses here. Ninoondawaag iko bebakaan ingoji izhaayaan Oo mii omaa gaa- onzikaamagak mii omaa gaa-onzikaamagak. Niswaak ningodwaasimidana ashi-naanan da-agwaaigaadewan iniw ziibaaskaiganan. Gaawiin mem- wech iw 365. Minik igo da-minotaagwak eta go gidaa-agwaaanan. Mii gaa- izhichigewaad. I hear in the different places I go Oh it comes from here it comes from here. Three hundred sixty-five jingles should be put on the jingle dress. 365 isnt necessary. You only need to put on as many that are needed to sound good. Thats what they did. Continued from page 18 WIIGWAASI-JIIMAANIKIWIN Interns learn wiigwaasi-jiimaanikiwin birch bark canoe making Master of all things wiigwaasi Marvin DeFoe instructs Crandon Wis.One hundred years ago the Ojibwe people did not use a motorized vehicle for transportation. They used a wiigwaasi-jiimaan birch bark canoe constructed of natural resources harvested out of the forest. On August 5 and 6 ten GLIFWC summer interns had the opportunity to travel to Mole Lake Wisconsin where Marvin DeFoe Red Cliff was teaching the complete process of assembling a wiigwaasi-jiimaan which was being built outside of the Mole Lake Recre- ational Center under a lodge. Marvin also had several other helpers including Robert Van Zile Jr. Leland Van Zile Josh Van Zile and Larry Van Zile. The long and vigorous process takes about a month explained DeFoe from gather- ing all the materials needed until finally sealing the jiimaan. The first day the interns arrived RobertVanZileJr.MoleLaketookhalf oftheinternsintotheforesttopullspruce roots. The spruce roots would be used as the thread to sew the wiigwaasi- jiimaan together. The other five interns stayedbehindandassistedMarvin.When Rob and his five returned they began to remove the bark from the spruce roots. The spruce roots ranged from 3 to 15 feet long. In all the interns removed bark from at least 30 roots. The process began with using fingernails to peel the bark down to the root after all the bark had been removed from the root the root was split down the middle using a mookomaan knife. Later that evening the interns were humbled to be invited to Tina Van Ziles home for a drum ceremony. The ceremony began with a prayer then pro- ceeded to the feast. Following the feast a group of men sang several ceremonial songs.Theysangforanyonewhoneeded healing and for good health. At the end of the ceremony everyone was gifted something from a bundle of gifts. Thefollowingdaytheinternswere taughthowtosewthewiigwaasi-jiimaan together. The first step of the process is drillingholeswherethewiigwaasbirch bark needed to be sewn together the holes needed to be an inch apart. After drilling the holes the interns and Mole Lakeyouthbegansewingthewiigwaasi- jiimaan using two spruce roots. The spruce roots had been soaking in water overnightinbuckets.Marvintheinterns and Mole Lake youth sewed most of the wiigwaasi-jiimaan together by the end of the day. Before the interns returned back to Bad River Rob and Marvin shared stories and taught the students the Ojibwe words for all the tools they had been using. Sadly the GLIFWC interns only got to stay for two days out of the whole process. They had been greeted with kindness from the Mole Lake com- munity and enjoyed their stay. Before the interns left Marvin left them with some humbling words. He told them all I have faith and hope for the Anishinaabe people now. I have hope for the people when I look at all of you. Those were big words to carry home and a big challenge. By Darcie Powless GLIFWC Summer Intern GLIFWC summer interns listen intently as Red Cliffs Marvin DeFoe explains the construction of a wiigwaasi-jiiman at Mole Lake last summer. Spruce roots harvested by the interns soak overnight to make them flexible for sewing the next day. The bark is sewn together using holes drilled in the wiigwaas one inch apart. Photos by Darcie Powless PAGE 23 MAZINAIGANWINTER 2015-16 The delegation also gifted the Treaty 3 Chiefs with a bagijigan bundle that consisted of blankets manoomin coffee clothing and other gifts that came from the different GLIFWC bands. The concept of gift giving is a long-standing Ojibwe tradition that displays gizhewaadiziwin kindnessgenerosity from one party to another but more importantly it reinforces kinship through clans and or other family connections. In addition an opwaagan was gifted to the Treaty 3 Chiefs as well. The opwaagan was made by Kekek Jason Stark and myself and was a gesture by us being that we are both of the Bizhiw clan to display sincerity of our intent to col- laborate a reminder of Ojibwe integrity and also providing another tool to help our relatives in all of their endeavors. I was honored to put forth my effort to create that pipe. I also was asked to speak for the bagijigan and the pipe before the Treaty 3 Chiefs accepted it. I am proud that I used our language to convey to the manidoog what took place that day. Im also excited and motivated to be given compliments for using our lan- guage by people that reside in an Ojibwe community that possesses such a high fluency rate. Also after I spoke many people greeted me with a simple phrase Boozhoo doodem.The Lynx clan has a strong presence there and hearing those words made me feel at home. Everything we experienced was the evident power of the manidoog and how truly blessed we are as Ojibwe-Anishinaabe people. Our culture is the vessel that sustainsusandourlanguageistheengine.Togethertheyareafinetunedmachine. 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